NANAPASHEMET – or the New Moon
Born: Unknown Died: 1619 ( Lewis )
Wife: Known to history as only by the name Squaw – Sachem
Children: Sons: 3
Wohohaquaham, Sagamore John, the eldest son
Montowampate, Sagamore James, the middle son
Wenepoykin, Sagamore George, the youngest son
Yawata, the wife of John Awassamug,sr. ( Oonsumog, Lewis )
Drake states that he had 5 children, the name of one being unknown
He was one of the greatest sachems ( pronounced sawkum by the Indians, Lewis ) in New England, ruling over a larger extant of country than any other. He swayed, at one time, all the tribes north and east of the Charles River, to the river Piscataqua. The Nipmucks acknowledged his dominion, as far as Pocontocook, now Deerfield, on the Connecticut; and after his death they had no great sachem. ( Smith, Gookin, Hubbard. See also Samuel G. Drake’s interesting Book of the Indians, wherein he has accumulated a vast amount of facts respecting the sons of the forest. ) He resided in Lynn until the great war of the Tarratines, in 1615. He then retreated to a hill on the borders of the Mystic River, (in Medford) where he built a house and fortified himself in the best manner possible. He survived the desolating sickness of 1617; but the Tarratines pursued him to his retreat and he was killed by them in 1619. Before the plague he could raise three thousand men. He also governed the Pawtuckets, Passaconway being a sub chief under him. Sometime in 1615, war broke out between the Penobscots and the Tarratines of northern Maine, a war brought on by a raid on a Tarratine village by the Penobscots in which a number of Tarratines were killed, and several women and children were taken as prisoners. The Tarratines retaliated by attacking the main village of the Penobscots where they killed the Bashebe ( Great Sachem ), then continued on, attacking most of the villages from the Penobscot River to the Blue Hills of Maine, killing so many in these raids that the survivors were for some time unable to bury their dead. That same year, Nanapashemet sent a war party to aid the Penobscots, but although his men were victorious in their few skirmishes with the Tarratines and brought a few prisoners back to Massachusetts, he brought about his own death and the destruction of his federation by his participation in the war.
In September, 1621, a party of the Plymouth people, having made a visit to Obatinua, sachem of Boston, went up to Medford. Mr. Winslow says, “Having gone three miles, we came to a place where corn had been newly gathered, a house pulled down, and the people gone. A mile from hence, Nanapashemet, their king, in his lifetime had lived. His house was not like others; but a scaffold was largely built, with poles and planks, some six foot from the ground, and the house upon that, being situated upon the top of a hill. Not far from hence, in a bottom, we came to a fort, built by their deceased king – the manner thus: There were poles, some thirty or forty feet long, stuck in the ground, as thick as they could be set by one another, and with those they enclosed a ring some forty or fifty feet over. A trench, breast high, was dug on each side; one way there was to get into it with a bridge. In the midst of this palisade stood the frame of a house, wherein, being dead, he lay buried. About a mile from hence we came to such another, but seated upon the top of a hill. Here Nanapashemet was killed, none dwelling in it since the time of his death. The care with which the great Moon Chief took to fortify himself, shows the fear which he felt for his mortal enemy. With his death, the vengeance of the Tarratines seems in some degree to have abated; His sons returning to the shore (Nanapashemet had sent his wife and children to a tribe belonging to his Federation that lived far into the interior), collected the scattered remnants of their tribes, over who they ruled as sagamores on the arrival of the English. The general government was continued by Nanapashemet’s wife know as Squaw Sachem. She married Webbacowet, who was the great physician of her nation.
He is called a Pawtucket chief in Historic Contacts, Grumet, although the federation which he led was known as the Massachusetts. His principle place of residence was in Medford near Mystic Pond. One of his forts was on the hill above Colonial Road in Salem. The area is called Castle Hill. The remain of another of his forts could still be seen ( 1881 ) in Marblehead near the Forest River ( Hist. of Essex County ) and yet another in Marblehead on a low hill, in a pasture (Lower Division Pasture) on the north-westerly side of Humphrey St., in the rear of the Maple Street schoolhouse. It was circular in shape, about fifty-two feet in diameter. This fort is mentioned in the deed of Thomas Oliver to John Bradstreet, dated July 5, 1658.
(Hist. of Salem, Felt)
The Bessom Pasture near Salem Harbor (in Marblehead) was probably the site of an Indian village. Excavations at the Harris Farm and the fields on Atlantic Avenue were probably wigwams. Their largest shell heap was between the hills to the west of Throgmorton Cove off Salem Harbor in Marblehead near the “Pine ” grove, on the line of the railroad to Salem: by actual count this heap contained 30 cords of shells placed in layers of stones and ashes. This shell heap was removed about 1850 for use as fertilizer. There were other small shell heaps on Salem Neck and near the “Mill Pond” on the South River. There were also a few shell heaps in Beverly.
Born: unknown Died: 1667
Husbands: Nanapashemet, who was killed by the Tarratines in 1619
Webbacowet, the tribal powwow of the Musketaquid (Concord) Indians. Married him previous to 1635
Sons by Nanapashemet: Sagamores George of Naumkeak, the youngest son
James of Saugus, the middle son
John of Winnisimmet the eldest son
Daughter by Nanapashemet: Yawata, who married John Awassamug and removed to Natick
One of the residences of Squaw Sachem is believed to have been near “Gardner’s Row,” now part of West Cambridge
After Nanapashemet’s death only four tribes remained loyal to his old Massachusetts federation, Saugus, Naumkeag, Winnisimmet (Charlestown) and Musketaquid (Concord) Passaconaway, a sub – sachem under Nanapashemet became the great sachem of the Penacook federation. Chickataubut, sachem of Weymouth and Obatinua, sachem of Boston formed a new federation, also called Massachusetts. In 1621, Obatinua told the Pilgrims that although he lived in Massachusetts territory he was subject to the Wampanoaug. The Nipmucks appear to have had no great sachem after this time. Squaw Sachem conducted raids against other tribes which tried to encroach on her territory and former federation members. These raids ceased after 1625.
Plymouth colony settlers moving westward among Massachusetts people at Wessagusset established the first English settlement in the area in 1622. These and other early settlers established close relations with influential Massachusetts leaders like Squaw Sachem. Although her name has not yet been found in English records, the Squaw Sachem rose to prominence as the most important Massachusetts leader of her era. Succeeding to leadership after her husband, Nanapashemet, was killed by Northern Indians, she extended her authority through her sons. One of these, a man named Wonohaquaham but known to the English as Sagamore John, led a Massachusetts community on the Mystic River. Two others, Montowampate (called Sagamore James by the English) and Wenepoykin (also known as Sagamore George), were chiefs of Pawtucket communities at Saugus and Salem, respectively. From: Historic Contact, Grumet
The History of Charlestown places Squaw Sachem and the tribes over who her sons were sachems as part of the Pawtuckets.
Her son John became sachem of the Winnisimmet, James of the Saugus, and George of the Naumkeags. Nattawattahunt remained sachem of the Musketaquid, loyal to her.
The History of Charlestown says ” But the peninsula is full of Indians (one of their main places being at the mouth of the Charles River,) who are attentive spectators of this infant colonization. With what wonder do they regard each note of preparation! They follow the engineer as he goes from point to point with his curious instruments, modeling the town; and then carry tidings of the strange things they see, to the Saunks of the late King Nanapashemet. She, in all her Queenly dignity, with the Powwow of the Tribe in her train, comes down from her residence in the woods, to verify for herself the wonderful reports. The Squaw Sachem gazes curiously upon each household implement; while her son Wonohaquaham, notes each timber in the construction of the “Great House.” As he watches these things his countenance is unmoved, and he utters only the customary “ugh.” But as he beholds the white man’s stated and simple sacrifice to the Great Sprit, another feeling is awakened; until at length, Indian stoicism relents into the confession, that an answering chord is touched in his own undisciplined breast. Ere he dies, his sprit longs for communion with the “Englishman’s God.”
She attended the may-pole celebration at Mare Mount (Quincy) in 1625 and after this time stopped her raids on other tribes.
August 5, 1637 – Indian deed to Concord signed by Wibbacowett; Squaw Sachem; Tahattawants; Nataquatick, alias Old Man; Carte, alias Goodman. The first settlers of Concord would barter with the Indians for venison and raccoons “whose flesh is not much inferior unto lambe”
In 1637 Charlestown paid thirty-six shillings to Squaw Sachem and Webbacowit, for land now part of Sommerville, which they in Court acknowledged themselves “to be satisfied for”.
The original Indian deed to Concord was probably lost at an early date, in 1684 testimony was given as to the sale of this land by the Indians.
The Deposition of Jehojakin, alias Mantatukwet, a Christian Indian of Natick, aged 70 years or thereabouts. ” This Deponent testifieth and saith, that about 50 years since he lived within the bounds of that place which is now called Concord, at the foot of an hill, named Nashawtuck (Lee’s), now in the possession of Mr. Henry Woodis, and that he was present at a bargain made at the house of Mr. Peter Buckeley ( now Capt. Thomas Wheeler’s) between Mr. Simon Willard, Mr. John Jones, Mr. Spencer, And several others, in behalfe of the Englishmen who were settling upon the said town of Concord, and Squaw Sachem, Tahattawan, and Nimrod, Indians, which said Indians then sold a tract of land containing six miles square ( the said house being accounted about the center ) to the said English for a place to settle a town in; and he the said deponent saw said Willard and Spencer pay a parcell of Wampumpeage, hatchets, hoes, knives, cotton cloth, and shirts, to the said Indians for the said tract of land. And in particular perfectly remembers that Wibbacowet, husband to Squaw Sachem received a suit of cotton cloth, a hat, a white linen band, shoes, stockings, and a great coat, upon said bargain. And in the conclusion, the said Indians declared themselves satisfied, and told the Englishmen, they were welcome. There were present also at the said bargain, Waban, Merchant; Thomas his brother-in-law; Notawquatuchquaw; Tantumous, now called Jethro – Taken upon oath the 20th of October 1684. Taken before Daniel Gookin.
The Deposition of Jethro, a Christian Indian of Natick, aged 70 years or thereabouts: supports the testimony of Jehojakin above.
She reserved the right to use her old fishing-places and hunting grounds, until her death.
1639 – She deeded to Charlestown the tract of land now part of Sommerville and West Cambridge, along with Webbacowit for nineteen fathoms of wampum, twenty-one coats, and three bushells of corn.
“The 15th of the 2d mo., 1639.
Wee Web-Cowet and Squaw Sachem do sell vnto the Inhabitants of the Towne of Charlestowne, all the land within the line granted them by the court, (excepting the farmes and the ground, on the west of the two great Ponds called Misticke ponds, from the south side of Mr. Nowell’s lott, neere the vpper end of the Ponds, vnto the little runnet that cometh from Capt. Cook’s mills, which the Squaw reserveth to their vse, for her life, for the Indians to plant and hunt vpon, and the weare above the pons, they also reserve for the Indians to fish at whiles the Squaw liveth, and after the death of Squaw Sachem, she doth leave all her lands from Mr. Mayhue’s house to neere Salem to the present Governor, Mr. John Winthrop, Sen’r, Mr. Increase Nowell, Mr. John Wilson, Mr. Edward Gibbons to dispose of, and all Indians to depart, and for sattisfactio from Charlestowne, wee acknowledge to have received in full sattisfaction, twenty and one coates, ninten fathom of wampom, and three bushels of corne: In witness wherof we have here vnto sett o’r hands the day and yeare above named.
1639, Squaw sachem and Webcowit deeded to John Gibbones ” the reversion of all that parcel of land which lies against the ponds of Mystic, together with the said ponds, all which we reserved from Charlestown and Cambridge, late called Newtown, after the death of me, the said Squaw-Sachem” The consideration was, ” the many kindnesses and benefits to have received from the hands of Captain Edward Gibbones, of Boston” .
Webcowit was a powwow and was considered next in importance to Nanapashemet among the subjects of that chief, after his death; as a matter of course, his widow took him for her husband. The above provision of the deed makes no provision for him after the death of his wife. He seems to be less of a power than Squaw-Sachem. (Drake)
On September 4, 1640, she sold Mistick Ponds and a large tract of land now included in Sommerville, to Jotham Gibbons, of Boston. at this time she called herself “Squaw Sachem of Mystick” .
1647 – Webcowit “taking an active part” in the endeavors made of the English to Christianize his countrymen. “He asked the English why some of them had been 27 years in the land, and never taught them to know God till then. Had you done it sooner, (said he,) we might have known much of God by this time, and much sin might have been prevented, but now some of us are grown [too] old in sin.” The English said they repented of their neglect; but recollecting themselves answered, “You were not willing to heare till now,” and that God had not turned their hearts till then. (Drake & Hist of Concord)
On March 8, 1644 she submitted herself to the English and consented to have her subjects instructed in the Bible. She lost her sight and hearing in 1662, she had a stroke that completely paralyzed her in 1667, the year of her death. She was buried in Medford the exact location is unknown. In the History there is a deed dated March 29, 1662 that says “Mr. Francis Norton and Nicholas Davison, do in the name of the inhabitants of Charlestown, lay claim to the tract of land, reserved to Squaw Sachem during her life-time, and which is at present possessed and improved by Thomas Gleison of Charlestown, this land bounded on the east by Mistick Pond, on the west by Cambridge Common, on the south by the land of Mr. Cooke, on the north formerly in the possession of Mr. Increase Nowell
She lost her sight and hearing in 1662 and she had a stroke in 1667 that left her completely paralyzed. She died this same year 1667.
SAGAMORE GEORGE -Wenepoykin, erroneously called Winnapurkitt, also known as No Nose, George Rumney Marsh (his name pronounced with an accent and lingering on the third syllable We-ne-pawwe-kin)
Born: 1616 Died: September 1684 at age 68
Parents: Nanapashemet, Squaw-Sachem
Wife: Joane, Ahawayetsuaine, Ahawayet (Lewis) the daughter of Black Will, Poquannum
She died in 1685.
Their Daughters (3): Susanna, Potoqhoontaquah
Cicely, Cicily – Petaghunckay, Petagunsk (Lewis) alias Su George
Sarah Wuttaquatinmisk, (Wattaqyattinusk, Lewis) (meaning little walnut), Husband John Owufsumug, she was a widow by 1686.
If early historians are correct these women were beautiful, his daughters were called Wanapanaquin, or the plumed ones. This word is but another spelling of their fathers name Winepoykin which signifies a feather or plume.
Their Son (1): Nonnumpannumhow also known as Manatahqua, died sometime prior to 1686.
Grandchildren (3): Nonnopanhow, known as David Kunkshamooshaw and
Samuel Wattoanah (meaning staff) sons of Manatahqua
John Tontohqunne (Tontoquon – Lewis) son of Cicely
These three grandchildren were living in Chelmsford in 1686
Relatives: Thomas Queakufsen aka Capt. Tom living at Wamefit near Patucket Falls in 1686. He was the brother of Joane, Sagamore George’s wife.
James Rumney Marsh aka Munminquash and Quanahpohkit, He was the son of John & Joan Quanapohit, born in 1636. He was living in Natick in 1704. According to Indian testimony James was related to Sagamore George through his Mother. Sagamore George died in his home in l684 in Natick (his wigwam with Yawata present, Lewis)
Isreal Quanahpohkit of Natick, James oldest son, died at Natick Feb.1775
Sarah Rumneymarsh living in Natick in 1759 at 80 years of age, daughter of James
Thomas Quanahpohkit, (James brother?), age 86 in 1675
Also, two women living around Penacook in 1686 one named Pahpochkfitt, the other name unknown both granddaughters of Wenuhuf, his brother James wife.
He was the youngest son of Nanapashemet & Squaw Sachem of Massachusetts. He became sachem of Numkeag (Salem) when he was around eight years old, although a relative such as an uncle probably ruled for him until he grew older. He had two brothers John the eldest and James also older than him and one sister Yawata.
The Indian village of wigwams in l629 was located on the north side of the North River not far from Simondes (near the corner of North and Osborne Streets) This is the only Indian settlement in original Salem whose location can be identified from early records
There were only 2 or 3 Indian families at Naumkeag who planted in fenced fields alongside the English. Smith earlier noted a large village here.
After the death of his brothers James and John in 1633 he became sachem of Lynn and Chelsea as well as Naumkeag. When his mother Squaw Sachem died in 1667 he became sachem of Massachusetts which is north and East of the Charles River
Sagamore George’s lands were from the Frost Fish River (Danvers River) westward over the Ipswich River to the north side of Will’s Hill in Middleton and toward Andover and the south side of Andover town away toward the Shassink River to Malden Mill the south side of Spott Pond.
Also described as all land from the Naumkeag River (Bass River) up to Malden Mill Brook running from a pond called Spott Pond .
The original name for the Forrest River was the Mashabequash River
The dividing line running up from the bay up Danvers River, then between the ancient grants of Endecott and Porter, and then northerly on the northeast side of Will’s Hill, in Middleton. To the east of this line was the land of the Agawams and to the west that of the Massachusetts.
Sagamore George may have contracted small pox in 1633 and survived, but with the disfigurement of the loss of his nose which sometimes occurred as a result of this disease.
James Quamnapowitt (Rumneymarsh) & Thomas Quamnapowit who were living at Natick before the war, then interred on Deer Island in Boston Harbor served the English in the King Philips war as guides.
Thomas Quanapohit, called also Rumney-marsh, was a brother of James, and was also a Christian Indian. (Drake)
Sagamore George had never been in deep friendship with the English. He joined with Philip and was captured in 1676. He was sold into slavery in Barbados. He returned at the end of eight years and lived with James Rumney Marsh, in Natick until his death in 1684. His sister Yawata also resided in Natick at this time.
On September 22, 1675 – 7 Indians sold as slaves to be taken out of New England- George, William, ffawkins, great David, Renles (?), John Indian & Tommoquin (this may have been another George)
In 1639 a settlement called Lynn Village was began, it included Reading, South Reading and North Reading. The land was purchased for £10.16 and the deed signed by Sagamore George, his sister Abigail (Yawata), and one or two others.
Nov.25, 1641 -Court held at Salem “George the Indian brother of George Sagamore sent to Boston Joale”
On July 12, l642 Sagamore George and Edward alias Ned of Wight, sued Francis Lightfoot [an Englishman, d.1646] for land in Salem Court. The case was referred to the Boston Court.
1651 – In answer to the petition of George Indian of Lynn, this court refers him to bring his action in some inferior court, against any that ungenerously withhold any land from him.
1652 – Wenepoykin, the Lynn sagamore, on the first day of April, mortgaged “All that tract of land or neck of land, commonly called Nahant,” to Nicholas Davidson of Charlestown, “for twenty pounds sterling dew many yeer.” The deed was signed with his mark, which has somewhat the form of a capital H in writing.
On May 21, 1657, Sagamore Wenepoyken petitioned the General Court that he might possess some land, formerly owned by his brother, called Powder Horn Hill, in Chelsea. He was referred to the County Court.
(There was said to be an Indian Fort located here at one time. Hutchinson)
Disposition given at Salem Court June 3, 1657, ” We, George Sagamore and the Sagamore of Agawam, doe testify that Duke William, so called, did sell all Nahant unto ffarmer Dexter for a suit of clothes, which clothes ffarmer Dexter had again, and gave unto Duke William, so called, 2 or 3 coates for it again.” [Signed by the marks of the two sagamores]
On September 16, 1684 his heirs gave Marblehead a deed to their town, it was signed by Joane Ahawayet, Squaw, relict, Widdow of George Saggamore, alias Wenepauweekinwwekin or George No Nose; Joane Quanapohkownat, the widow of John Quanapohkownat of Natick: James Quanapohkownat, alias James Rumneymarsh, Isreal Quanapohkownat, Sarah Quanapohkownat all of Natick; Susannah Wenepawweekin, Sarah Wanapawequen daughters of Sagamore George; Joseph Quanophkonatt, alias Joe English, son of old John ( Essex Reg. Deeds, 11,132 )
.*. James Rumneymarsh signed the deed in English. From the Salem Deed 1686
* Wife of Peter Ephraim – all signers give their home as Natick
On March 19, 1685 David Nonupanhow relinquished his rights to Deer Island to the town of Boston.
The deed to Lynn and Reading dated September 4, 1686 and recorded in the Salem Registry of Deeds is a release of all remaining interest of the heirs of Sagamore Wenepauwekin or George No Nose. This deed is signed by David Kunkshamooshow and Abigail his wife, and Cicely Alias Su George and James Quonopohit and Mary Ponham, his wife. David Kunkshamooshaw stated in this deed on the residence of his grandfather.
“George sometimes of Rumney Marsh (Chelsea) and sometimes at or about Chelmsford-sometimes here and sometimes there.
On October 11, l686 Salem received it’s deed from Yawata (Abigail) and other relatives of Sagamore George. The wife of David Kunkshamooshaw, who was a grandson of George, was also called Abigail it may have been her that signed the deed. Although, it possibly could have been Yawata though she would have been very old.
Sagamore George’s family left Lynn about 1675 and went to Wameset (Chelmsford) now Lowell where they settled near Pawtucket Falls (Lewis)
JAMES RUMNEY MARSH – aka Munminquash and James Quanahpohkit
Born: 1636 (Lewis – Hist. of Lynn) Died: 1712
Parents: Old John and Joan Quanahpohkit of Natick
Wife: Mary Ponham Quanapohkit, Died in Natick March 9, 1737/38
Son: Isreal Quanapohkit his eldest son, died at Natick Feb.1775, his wife Esther
Daughter: Sarah Quanapohkit, living in Natick in 1759 at 80 years old
Isreal Rumnemarsh and his wife Esther had five children: Samuel, James, Berthiah, Sarah and Mary all who had died by 1750. Isreal had a granddaughter Sarah Rumneymarsh living at Natick.
Elizabeth Rumney Marsh married Eleazer Paugnet at Natick, December 16, 1754, their relationship to James Rumney Marsh unknown – Natick Vital Records.
Samuell Rublemarsh died at Natick in 1748 (Relative of James?) Natick Vital Records.
Testimony by various Indians state that James Rumney Marsh was related to Sagamore George through his Mother a “near kinsman” of Sagamore George. James’ mother Joan was most likely a niece of Squaw – Sachem, although it is possible that she was a sister of Squaw-Sachem.
James had some education and was able to sign his name on deeds and depositions.
James fought in the Massachusetts – Mohawk War in 1669, under Charles Josiah Chickatalbot.
James Rumney Marsh was living at Natick before the King Philip’s War and was intered on Deer Island along with the other Natick Indians; he served as a spy during the war and returned to Natick at the end of hostilities. He was still living at Natick in 1704.
Sagamore George lived with James in Natick after his return from slavery in Barbados and died in his home in 1684
Two decendants of Nanapashemet – Quanapaug and Quanapohit, living on Deer Island had become Christians taking the names of James and Thomas. They became spies for the English during the King Philip’s war for a promise of payment of £5 each. Philip had put a price on their heads but they managed to escape his rath (Lewis) .
“John, with one eye, belonging to Nashaway, who had civilly treated and protected James, and entertained him at his wigwam all the time of him being there. The cause of this his special love to James was because he had been a fellow-soilder with him in the Manhake war, and about ten years past. “(Gookin)
” 1675 Upon the 24th day of January, James Quannapohit ( one of the spies ) returned …… he was very weary, faint, and spent in near travelling near eighty miles. The snow being deep in the woods, he was necessitated to go upon rackets or snow – shoes, upon the top of the snow, which is very tiresome travelling.” ( Gookin )
“About the 21st of June (1675), at the first going forth, The English only were employed as soilders, excepting only three Indians for guides went with Capt. Prentive, viz. one James and Thomas Quannapohutt, alias Rumney Marsh ( He was probably called Rumney Marsh from his having lived about that place, in Chelsea, near Boston), and Zechary Abram, who all behaved themselves valiantly and faithfully.” ( Gookin Doings & Sufferings )
” This I do also know upon my own personal knowledge, that some of those Indian soilders at their return (viz. John Hunter, Thomas Quannapohitt, and Felix ) brought to the governor, John Leverett, Esq., four of the enemies scalps, slain by them at the fight at or near Mt. Hope, for which they had a reward given them….. Besides, another stout Indian of 86 was wounded by accident, and loss the use of his right arm, his name Thomas Rumney Marsh(Quanapohit), the manner thus; he being a horseman, as before hinted, under Captian Prentiss, they being at a stand and he sitting on his horse, set the butt end of a long gun he carried upon the ground, and held his hand upon the muzzel of the gun which was charged; the weather being hot, and the horse disturbed by flies, pawed with his fore foot, and turning the cock, (which was half bent,) the piece went off and tore his hand in pieces. It was after a long time cured, but the use of his hand lost; yet this fellow since that time hath done very good service as well as before, as may afterwards be mentioned.” (Gookin)
They marched to a place called Packachooge, about ten miles distant from Hassanamesit towards the northwest, where there was a great plenty of good Indian corn, and in this place we hoped to meet some of the enemy; coming to this place, they saw signs of Indians that had been lately there, but it seems were withdrawn upon the approach of the English. At this place our forces took up their quarters one night, there being two wigwams which were good shelter for our soldiers, the weather being wet and stormy. The next morn our forces searched about the cornfields to find the enemy, but could not discover them, though in all probability the enemy saw them in all their motions and concealed themselves; for this is their ordinary way, to lie hid in thick swamps and other secret places, and to move as our men do scatter themselves in small parties, and lie close observing all our men’s motions. The English in their search found above one hundred bushels of Indian corn newly gathered, and a great quantity of corn standing. About ten o’clock in the forenoon, the English captians and their soilders marched back to Hassanamesit; being gone about two miles on their way, Captian Henchman missing, as he apprehended, his letter-case, wherein his writings and orders were, he sent back two Englishmen and the Indian Thomas on horseback to see at the wigwams where he lodged to find his papers. These messengers accordingly going back, the Indian led them away and ascending up a steep hill, at the top whereof stood the wigwam; as soon as he discovered it, being not above six rods distance, he saw two Indian enemies standing at the wigwam door, newly come out and four more sitting at the fire in the house; at which sight he bestirred himself, and looking back called earnestly ( as if many men were behind coming up the hill ) to hasten away and encompass the enemy; one of the enemy thereupon presented his gun at our Indian, but the gun missing fire, ( probably the moist rainy weather had put it out of case, ) whereupon the rest of them that were in the wigwam came all out and ran away as fast as they could, suspecting that the English forces were at hand; and then Thomas with his two comrades , having thus prudently scared away the enemy, they also thought it seasonable also to ride back again to their company as fast as they could. And indeed there was good reason for it, because Thomas the Indian had only a pistol, one of the Englishmen, who was their chirurgeon, a young man, had no gun; the third had a gun, but the flint was lost.God preserved them by the prudence and courage of this Indian. ( Gookin )
1686 – James Quonopihik and David Kunkshamooshaw, decendants of Nanapashemet, sold a lot of land on the west side of the Iron Works’ pond on the 28th of July, to Daniel Hitchings.
In May 1684, James Rumneymarsh, Waban and nine other Indians of Natick sought to sell the former praying Indian town of Okommakamesit comprised of 5,800 acres to Marlborough proprietors. Gookin and Eliot protested the sale in part because of the absurd low price £40 and in part because the” Drunken & debach[ed ] Indians” who had agreed to the deal had angered “other more sober Indians”. The General Court agreed that Waban and “Great James” had sold Okommakamesit without proper authority. At times James Rumneymarsh officially spoke for Natick, as when he and Peter Ephraim spoke before the legislature in 1690 representing Natick.
1759 Sarah Rumneymarsh, widowed, living at Natick related “her great want and infirirmities being now Eighty years of age, and without any means of support”.
SAGAMORE JAMES – Montowompate
Born: 1609 (Lewis) Died: December 1633 of smallpox
Parents: Nanapashemet, Squaw-Sachem
Wife: Wanunchus, daughter of Passaconaway
He resided on the Abousett (Saugus) River, he was sachem of what is now Lynn, Marblehead, Nahant, and Saugus. Saugus is an Indian word meaning “extended” and probably referred to the broad salt marshes in that territory. The Indians applied the name Saugus to all the land between Salem and Boston.
He was the son of Nanapashemet and Squaw Sachem of Massachusetts. He had two brothers, George, sachem of Naumkeag younger than him and John, sachem of Mystic older than him, and a sister Yawata alias Abigail.
Wife: Wanunchus, a daughter of Passaconaway, the sachem of the Penacooks in the Merrimac Valley. Born in 1612. Married in 1629 ( James being 20 yrs. old ).
Children: names unknown
Grandchildren (2):Granddaughters Pattpocksit, the other name unknown. They were both living at Penacook (Concord, N.H.) in l686.
James was said to have a bad disposition compared to his brother John but he often went to the English and caused them no trouble. Between him and his brother John they had not more than thirty or forty men under their command. Most of their people had died in the various outbreaks of smallpox.
The record states ” near to Salem dwelleth two or three families, subject to the sagamore of Agawam, whose name he told me but I have forgotten it (Masconnomet). This sagamore had but few subjects, and them and himself tributary to Sagamore James, having been before the last year (in James’ minotity) tributary to Chickatalbott
James married Passaconaway’s daughter Wanunchus with her father’s blessing and took her to his residence in Saugus. After a time missing her father, James sent her to Penacook with an escort of his men. After feasting several days in Passaconaway’s village James’ men returned home. When Wanunchus wished to return to her husband Passaconaway sent a message to James, telling him to provide an escort for her for the return trip home to Saugus. James felt that since he had provided the men to bring Wanunchus to Passaconaway he should provide the escort back as a matter of protocol and would not send men to bring her home. Passaconway was angered by this, feeling that James should hold him in higher esteem and provide the escort. The situation somehow was resolved and Wanunchus eventually got safely back to James.
John Greenleaf Whittier’s poem “The Bridal of Penacook” is based on this incident. In the poem Wanunchus is called Weetamoo and James is called Winnipurkett.
Wanunchus may have returned to live with her father after James death as their grandchildren were living at Concord, N.H. in 1686.
Information on this incident is given in New English Canaan, by Thomas Morton, who was in the country at the time. It is also reproduced in Lewis’ History of Lynn.
Lewis’ History of Lynn says that he had a residence on Sagamore Hill near Long Beach.
James was wounded in a battle with the Tarratines at Agawam (Ipswich) on August 8, 1631, his wife; Wenunchus was taken captive along with several other Indians. She was ransomed September 17, 1631 for wampum and ten beaver pelts through the mediation of Mr. Abraham Shurd of Pemaquid, who used to trade with them.
On September 4, 1632 Richard Hopkins of Watertown, was arraigned for selling a gun and a pistol, with powder and shot to James the Lynn Sagamore. The sentence of the Court was that he should “be severly wipped and branded with a hot iron on one of his cheekes.” One of the Saugus Indians gave the information, on the promise of concealment, for his discovery would have exposed him to the resentment of his tribe (also Winthrop’s Journal).
July 1, 1657 – William Dixey gave the following deposition in Essex Court ” For a place to set down in; upon which Mr. Endicott did give me and the rest leave to go where we would; upon which we went to Saugus, now Linne, and there wee met with Sagamore James and som other Indians, who did give me and the rest leave to dwell there or thereabouts; whereupon I and the rest of my master’s company did cutt grass for our cattell, and kept them upon Nahant for som space of time; for the Indian Sagamore James and the rest did give me and the rest in behalf of my master Johnson, what land we would; whereupon we sett down in Saugus, and had quite possession of it by the abovesaid Indians, and kept our cattell in Nahant the sumer following” .
John Wood one of the original settlers of Lynn, said “we did not settle at Sagamore Hill, because the Indians were there” .
SAGAMORE JOHN – Wonohaquaham
Sachem of Mishawum (Charlestown)
Died: December 5, l633 of smallpox (Winthrop’s Journal)
Parents: Nanapashemet, Squaw-Sachem
Wife: name unknown
Son (2): name’s unknown, one died around 1650
Another son perhaps died in 1633 while a child
He was the oldest son of Nanapashemet and Squaw Sachem of Massachusetts.
His brothers were Sagamore George of Naumkeag the youngest and Sagamore James of Saugus and he had a sister Yawata called Abigail by the English.
His residence was at Mystic “upon a creek which meets with the mouth of the Charles River ” (Hutchinson) Drake says however he lived at Rumney Marsh (Chelsea) Rev. John Higginson’s deposition supports Hutchinson. He lived, probably, at both places.
Sagamore John and his brother Sagamore James “command[ed] not above thirty or forty men” in 1630 according to Dudley.
John was wounded along with his brother James at Ipswich on August 8, 1631 during a battle with the Tarratines. In l632 Canonicus the Narragansett Sachem sent a messenger to both John and Chikataubut demanding their help in a war with the Wampanoag. John went to Rhode Island along with 30 of his men. The English at Plymouth had intervened before they reached the Narragansetts and the war was over. However the Narragansetts were also at war with the Pequots at the time and decided to send the two Massachusetts groups along with some of their own men against them. The Pequot proved too strong for this force and both John and Chikataubut returned home. This incident shows that both sachems were in some way subject to the Narragansetts.
Sagamore John was well thought of by the English. He subjected himself to English law at an early date. Joseph Dudley, Lt. Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony wrote in a letter to the Countess of Lincoln on March 12, 1631, ” John is a handsome young sachem conversant with us, affecting English apparell and howses and speaking well of our God. The Charlestown records say he was of “good and gentle disposition.” Johnson says, Sagamore John “being always very courteous to them.” New England First Fruits says “He desired to learne and speake our language, and loved to imitate us in our behaviour and apparrell, and began to harken after our God.”
In 1627 he gave the English permission to settle at Charlestown In the summer of 1628 the settlers left Salem and travelled the woods above twelve miles to the westward, and lighted of a place situated and lying on the north side of Charles river, full of Indians. Their old sachem being dead, his eldest son, by the English called John Sagamore, was their chief. They settled about the hill of the same place, by the said natives called Mishawum; where they found one English palisaded and thatched house, wherein lived Thomas Walford.
Mishawum meant “a large spring” and Shawmut meant, “fountains of living waters.” The results seem almost conclusive, that when the spring at Mishawum “a great spring,” was overflowed by the tide, the aborigines were probably in the daily habit of crossing over in their canoes to the opposite peninsula to procure fresh water, were springs were excellent and abundant. Hence the name Shawmut, “fountains of living water.”
1629 – In April and May the Narragansetts planned to cut off the English. Sagamore John who “always loved the English” revealed the plot to the settlers of Charlestown. But their plot was chiefly against Plymouth (Charlestown Records).
On April 4, 1631 Gov. Bradford of Plymouth received a visit from Wahginnacut, a Poduck sachem whose tribe lived along the Connecticut River. He urged Bradford to settle a colony on his land. His motive was for the English to act as protection against the Pequots. He had just returned from a visit with Gov. Winthrop in Boston to whom he made the same offer. With him he had brought Sagamore John and Jackstraw, a Virginia Indian to act as Interpreters. He promised the Massachusetts colony 80 prime beaver skins and food until their first harvest if they accepted his offer. The Indian interpreter “Jackstraw” may possibly have been either Wanchese or Manteo, both of whom were taken to England from Virginia. One of these natives was said to have been a servant for Sir Walter Raleigh in England, and then to have “turned Indian “again.
In March of 1631 he appeared, with one of his subjects at the court then seated at Watertown to complain of two wigwams being burned by settlers. Upon investigation it was learned that a servant of Sir Richard Saltonstall had been using these wigwams for drinking occasions with his friends, as he noticed that the Indians seldom used them. During one of these drinking bouts they made a large fire in one of the wigwams which got out of control and caught the wigwam on fire, it being a windy day the sparks from the first wigwam ignited the second. Saltonstall was order to pay John seven yards of cloth for the wigwams. To satisfy both him and his subject. The servant was to repay his master for the cloth 50 shillings.
May 1631 – Sagamore John and Chickatalbot “Promised unto the Court (General Court)
to make satisfaction for whatsoever wronge that any of their men shall doe any of the Englishe, to their Cattell or any other Waires.” A month later they were required to make recompense for “some Injuries” done by their men to the settlers’ cattle, and Chickatalbot was fined a beaver skin for shooting one of Richard Saltonstall’s swine.
On May 26, l631 Sagamores James and John, accompanied by some of their men, complained to Governor Winthrop that they had been defrauded of 20 Beaver skins, by a man in England, named Watt. The governor entertained them kindly and gave them the name of a lawyer in London, Emanual Downing, Esq. Winthrop’s brother-in-law.
(Winthrop’s Journal) Tradition says that John went to London where he was treated with much respect as an Indian King. But he disliked the English food and returned home.
July 13, 1631 – Canonicus’ Son, (this was probably Miantonomo, Canonicus’ nephew) the Great Sachem of the Narragansett came to the governor’s house with John Sagamore. After they had dined he gave the governor a skin, and the governor requited him a fair pewter pot, which he took very thankfully, and stayed the night. (John Winthrop’s Journal Entry)
In 1632 when John had returned from Narragansett country he found that a large amount of his corn had been destroyed by Saltonstall’s cattle. John again appeared before the court seeking restitution for the destroyed corn. The court ruled against John saying that it was his responsibility to fence in his crops and he should do so in the future or face a fine from the court. Although he did not agree with the courts ruling and felt if any fences were to be built Saltonstall should build them since they were his cattle, he accepted it. Later Saltonstall was ordered to give John a hogshead of his corn to replace that which his cattle had destroyed.
The history of Charlestown says that it was the settler’s policy to compensate the Indians for damage done to their corn by the settler’s livestock and to respect their fishing places.
October 11, 1631 – The governor, being at his farm house at Mystic, walked out after supper, and took a piece in his hand supposing he might see a wolf (for they came daily about the house and killed swine and calves, etc.), and being about one-half mile off it grew suddenly dark, so in comming home he mistook his path and went till he came to a little house of Sagamore John, which stood empty. There he stayed, and having a piece of match (Cord or cloth dipped in sulphur) in his pocket (for he always carried about him match and a compass, and in summer time snake – weed), he made a good fire near the house, and lay down upon some old mats which he found there, and so spent the night, sometimes walking by the fire, sometimes singing psalms, and sometimes getting wood, but could not sleep. It was (through God’s mercy) a warm night, but a little before day it began to rain, and having no cloak he made shift by a long pole to climb up into the house. In the morning there came thither an Indian squaw, but perceiving her before she had opened the door he barred her out, yet she stayed there a great while assaying to get in, and at last she went away and he returned safe home, his servants having been much perplexed for him, and having walked about and shot off pieces and hallooed in the night, but he heard them not (Winthrop’s Journal).
As John’s tribe increased from the smallpox outbreaks of the early 1600’s he found that he needed more land. He appealed to the court at various times to seek payment for the land belonging to him that the increasing English population had settled on. The court postponed these request and the problem solved itself when another smallpox epidemic hit the Massachusetts coast in 1633 – 1634 and wiped out entire Indian villages.” At this time (1633) a most grievous and terrible sickness amongst the Indians, who were exceeding numerous about us “.
John himself became ill in late November 1633 and died December 5, 1633. Samuel Maverick and his wife and servants took care of John and several other Indians with smallpox. John gave the governor a quantity of wampum as well as gifts to several other English; and took order for the payment of his own debts and those of his men. He died in persuasion that he would go to the Englishmen’s God. Many of the ill Indians said they would worship the English God if they recovered. When visited shortly before his death he was reported to have said “by and by mee mattamay (to die) may be my two sons live, you take them to teach much to know God.”
(Johnson) Maverick buried John as well as thirty other Indians who had died on the same day. This burial site was probably in Chelsea on the hill where the Navel Hospital was later built.
Some of the English in the towns around the bay took the Indian children into their homes hoping to rescue them from the smallpox. Most died, Sagamore John’s son was one of the few to survive. He was taken care of by Mr. John Wilson, pastor of Boston.
John Winthrop is said to have taken another one of his sons, no more is known about this child and he may have died soon after his father (From Johnson’s – Wonder Working Providence) (also Winthrop’s Journal) .
John Winthrop was entertained by Maverick in 1630, In 1634 he moved from Winnesimmet (Chelsea) to Noodles Island which may have been granted to him.
Sagamore John left by a will, all his wampum and coats to his mother, and his land about Powder Horn Hill, to his son, and in case of his decease, to his brother George .
The mortality among them was very great, and increase among them daily more and more, insomuch that the poore Creatures being very timorous of death, would faine have fled from it, but could not tell how, unlesse they could have gone from themselves; Relations were little regarded by them at this time, so that many, who were smitten with the Disease, died helplesse, unless they were neare, and known to the English….The Winters piercing cold stayed not the strength of this hot Disease, yet the English endeavouring to visit their sick Wigwams, helpe them all they could, but as they entered one of their matted Houses, they beheld a most sad spectacle, death having smitten them all but one poore Infant, which lay on the ground sucking the Breast of its dead Mother, seeking to drew living nourishment from her dead breast. Their dead they left oft-times unburied, wherefore the English were forced to dig holes, and drag their stinking corps into them. ( Johnson’s w w p )
Governor Winthrop wrote in his journal “it wrought much with them, that when their own people forsook them, yet the English came daily and ministered to them.”
February 1634 – Such of the Indian Children as were left were taken by the English, most whereof did die of the pox soon after; three only remaining, whereof one which the governor kept was called Knowe God (the Indians’ usual answer being, when they were put in mind of God, Me no know God) (Winthrop’s Journal).
In the late 1800’S, Francis Brooks was excavating a foundation for a barn on his property in West Medford. His workmen uncovered the remains of eighteen Indians buried in a sitting position. From the amount of artifact found in the grave they mistakenly believed that it may have been the burial place of Sagamore John and erected a small monument there to his memory.
Daughter of Nanapashemet, and sister of the three sagamores
Born: unknown Died: After 1686, in Natick (Lewis)
Husband: Oonsumog (Lewis) John Awassamug, sr., the nephew of the Nipmuck Sachem Wuttawushan.
[The names of the Indians are variously spelled in records and depositions, as they were imperfectly understood from the nasal pronunciations. Lewis]
Awassamug sold land around Natick in the 1680’s
Children: three sons; Thomas Awassamug sr.his wife’s name was Abigail; they had two married daughters; and a son Thomas Jr.
John Awassamug; Samuel Awassamug
[“She had a son, Muminquash, born in 1636, and called James Rumney Marsh, who also removed to Natick “] (Lewis)?
” Quannapowitt ( Muminquash ) was the grandson of Nanapashemet and squaw – sachem of Massachusetts, the only son of their daughter Yawata and John Oonsamog. Born at Rumney Marsh
(Chelsea) in 1636, he originally adopted “James Rumney Marsh as his English name, but he was later known as both James Wiser and James Quannapowitt. He and his parents were converted to Christianity by the Reverend Mr. John Eliot, and were included in the group that comprised the first settlers of Natick. He had two children – Isreal and Joan – by his marriage to Mary Ponham, another Natick resident, and while his children were still young, he served as an interpreter for the Massachusetts Bay Colony. He was later called as a teacher to the church at Martha’s Vineyard, but when the war broke out he was back at Natick where he had been appointed as a leader.” (Bonfanti); I believe these two statements are incorrect as to who James Rumney Marsh’s parents were, it is not supported by other information and there is much to the contrary, On September 7, 1686 in a sworn statement he said ” James Rumney Marsh aged about fifty yeares ye son of Jno Indian ” In other testimony he states that he is the son of Old John and Joan of Natick, Yawata was called Abigail by the English not Joan. Also I have found no other information on a child of James named Joan or that he was a teacher at the Church at Martha’s Vineyard.]
Thomas Awassamug Jr. and his wife Deborah Abraham Awassamug had five children:
John, born Aug.2, 1733 at Natick
Amos, born in Needham, May 29, 1730, died November 19, 1742 at Natick
Hannan, daughter, born in Medfield, July 9, 1747, died January 24, 1759 at Natick
Submit, a daughter, born, June 14, 1733 at Natick
Thankful, a daughter
Thankful Awassamug, a daughter married William Feggins in Natick on July 12, 1763
Submit Awassamug, a daughter married William Fegens, January 3, 1762, later she married Solomon Wamsquan in Hopkinton in 1781. A petition to the General Court indicates Submit was living in Holliston in 1774, destitute and residing in an English household.
Thomas Awassamug and his wife Jerusha had a daughter Molly, Jan.8, 1767 at Natick (in East Town, Natick Vital Records)
Despite owning land in Natick, by 1750 he had been reduced to a state of povety.
His son Thomas Jr. married twice, first to Hannah Pegan Quitticus of Dudley in 1758, then to Jerusha Simons of Stoughton in 1772.
She lived to sign the deed of Salem, in 1686, and died at Natick. The early settlers called her Abigail. The wife of David Kunkshamooshaw, who was a grandson of Yawata’s brother Wenepoykin ( Sagamore
George ), was also called Abigail This last was the one who signed the deed of Lynn. Yet Yawata may have signed the deed to Salem, in 1686, though she must have been quite old.
She was present in James Rumney Marsh’s wigwam at Natick in 1684 when her brother Sagamore George died.(Lewis)
BLACK WILL – Poquamun, Duke William
Sachem of Nahant, subject to Sagamore James of Saugus
Died: January 1633, hanged in Scarborough, Maine for a murder committed by other Indians:
Married: Twice, he sometimes lived at Lynn and married his second wife and lived at Nahant
One of his wifes was said to be a daughter of Passaconaway (Beals)
Son (1): Also named Poquamun, Thomas Queakussen or Capt. Tom, born in 1611, he was Friendly to English. Gookin states in 1686 ” He is an Indian of good repute and professeth the Christian religion “. He served in the King Philip’s war. There is a confession of faith preserved in Eliot’s ” Tears of Repentance,” by Poquanum, proably this same Indian. He is proably the Indian eluded to by Rev. John Eliot, in his letter, November 13, 1649, in which he says: ” Linn Indians are all naught, save one, who sometimes cometh to hear the word, and telleth me that he prayeth to God; and the reason why they are bad is partly and principlly because their sachem is naught, and careth not to pray to God ” He signed the deed to Salem in 1686, and on the 17th of September, in that year he gave testimony as to land ownership of Sagamore George.
( Essex Reg. Deeds, 11, 131.) He was living at Wamefit near Patucket Falls in 1686. He lived to an old age.
Daughter (1): Joane, Ahawayetsuaine, wife of Sagamore George
Black Will was friendy towards the English settlers, he was well known to them and said to be Intelligent and generous. It is believed that he is the same Indian who went aboard Gosnold’s ship in 1602 wearing a suit of European cloths and speaking English. Where he got this suit of cloths is unknown, probably trading in Maine
He was a contempory of Nanapashmet.
Black Will’s cliff, near the Southeasterly end of King Beach, is said to have been the site of his abode.
He sold Nahant to Thomas Dexter for a suit of cloths. Dexter’s claim on Nahant caused the town expensive lawsuits in 1657, 1678 and 1695.Dexter bought Nahant for speculation, he lived near the Iron Works.Nahant was used for farming and animal husbantry. A fence was built across the causeway that formed at low tide to keep the wolfs out, it was mostly uninhabited for many years.
Disposition given in Salem Court June 3, 1657:
” I, John Legg, aged 47 years or thereabouts, doe testifie, that when I was Mr. Humphreys servant, there came unto my masters house one Blacke Will, as wee call him, an Indian, with a compleat suit on his backe; I asked him where he had that suit; he said he had it of ffarmer Dexter, and he had sold him Nahant for it.”
Thomas Dexter was a farmer who lived on the West side of the Saugus River and bought Nahant for speculation. It was used very early to grow wheat and pasture livestock.
He also sold to Mr. Witter his house lot as well as hundreds of other acres of land. Mr. Witter’s testimony states,” Black Will or Duke Williams, so called, came to my house ( which was two or three miles from Nahant ), when Thomas Dexter had bought Nahant for a suit of cloths; the said Black Will asked me what I would give him for the land my house stood upon, it being his land and his father’s wigwam stood there-abouts, James Sagamore and John, and the Sagamore of Agawam and divers more, and George Sagamore being a youth was present, all of them acknowledging Black Will to be the right owner of the land my house stood upon, and Sagamore Hill and Nahant were also his;” and he also adds that ” he bought Nahant and Sagamore Hill and Swampscott of Black Will for two pestle stones:
Nahant seems to have been sold several times to different individuals by Black Will, who also gave it to the plantation for a sheep pasture.
Nahant is said to be taken from the Algonquian word Nahateau meaning twin, signifying the twin islands, big and little Nahant.
Black Will was found fishing on Richmond’s Island near Portsmouth, in January of 1633, and hanged for the murder of Walter Bagnall, a dishonest trader, who was killed on October 3, 1631 along with another Englishman when the trading post was burned and firearms, ect. were taken. The murders were actually commited by other Indians, Squidrayset, the Casco Bay sagamore and other Abenakis ( Governor Winthrop tells us that he was killed by ” Squidraysett and his Indians ” ).Black will may have been visiting the newly built truckhouse on the Island.
In the winter of 1636, angry Indians once again raided Richmond Island, killing 200 hogs and some goats. Settlers at nearby Saco Bay, also accused local Abenakis of stealing their hogs.
MASCONOMET – John, Masconomo, Quanopkonat,
Sachem of Agawam
Died: March 6, 1658
Sons : Thomas Tyler, living on Martha’s Vineyard in 1673
Daughter: Sarah, mother of Samuel English & Joseph English
Grandsons, Samuel English,his wife Susannah
Joseph English (Quanopkonat) killed at Tyngsboro July 27, l706 (Colby) [this information or date may be incorrect as testimony indicates he was deceased pryor to January 1701 and his signature does not appear on any deed after 1700].
John Umpee – the above three living in Middlesex County in l700.
Granddaughter: Betty Wouches wife of Jeremiah Wouches
[ ” Quanopkonet, called John, was another relative of Wenepoykin. His widow Joan, and his son James, signed the deed of Salem, in 1686 ” .
( Lewis ). I believe the information about his wife’s name and sons name in Lewis’, History of Lynn is in error. ]
From the intimacy which exsisted between them he was proably a relative of Sagamores John, James and George.
His territory extended from the Merrimac River on the North, South to the Naumkeag, and from the Cochicewick ( Andover ) to the coast of Massachusetts Bay.There were several large cornfield at Annasnappett “place besides the babbling brook”( Ipswich River) or Middleton. One large field was across from The Great Pond ( Wenham Lake ) were the golf course is now located. Will’s Hill, the highest point of land in the southwest part of Ipswich ( now Middleton) was a boundry marker with the Naumkeags. In 1639 there was an Indian plantation there of which Will was the sagamore. The hill was named after him, the last Indian living in Middleton who resided on it’s summit and whose squaw lived ther after the town was incorporated. There is a record of them eating skunks and rattlesnakes.An Indian by the name of Will is said to have sold a field of 160 acres to the settlers.
The last of the tribe lived in scattered wigwams, much at the town charge. In 1726, there were three families, each having a wigwam back of Wigwam Hill at the hamlet. A few were still living at Wigwam Hill in Hamilton in 1730.
Masconomets exact relationship to other tribes is not clearly understood. He may have been a sub tribe of the Massachusetts although he seemed to be under the domination of Passaconaway the great Peanacook sachem. Dudley says ” he was tributary to Sagamore James “.
After Governor Winthrop sr. ship the Arbella arrived in Salem Harbor,on June 12, 1630, according to Winthrop’s Journal, ” an Indian came aboad us and lay there all night” Masconomet and one of his men went on board the next morning Sunday, June 13, l629 and stayed all day. Perhaps Winthrop used this occassion to talk about land sales at Ipswich .
The Agawams were periodically attacked by the Terratines who resided in Maine and Canada. It is said that Masconomet slew several of these Indians in a battle and had a price of blood put on his head by them.On July 5, 1631 he was ordered not to enter any English houses seeking protection for a period of one year or face a fine of ten beaver pelts. In l629, he asked Governor Endicott for aid against the Tarratine and he did receive it. The Governor immediately dispatched Hugh Brown and several others by boat. He also requested aid on several other occassions against the Terratines.
Sagamores James and John often assisted him. One such time was August 8, l631 when about 100 Terratines in three canoes attacked the Agawams at Ipswich. Several men were killed, both John and James were wounded and James wife was taken captive along with several others. She was later ransomed.
The Tarratines also stole nets and biscuts from a wigwam that Mr. Craddock’s men kept equiptment in to catch sturgeon.
From Mr. Cobbet’s account, it appears that they came against the English, who, but for an Indian, named Robin, would have been cut off; as the able men at this time, belonging to the English at Ipswich, did not exceed thirty;and most of these were away from home on the day the attack was to occur. Robin, somehow knowing of the plan of the Terratines informed John Perkins.( John Perkins, was the Quarter-master, living then in a little hut upon his father’s island on this side of Jeofry’s Neck) The plan was for four Terratines to invite the English to trade, drawing them down the hill to the water’s edge, where forty canoes of Indians would be ready under a brow of a hill to attack them.The English frightened the Tarratines off by a false show of their numbers, beating an old drum, and firing a few guns.
“The people of Lynn were alarmed by a report that the Taratines intended an attack on them and appointed men each night to keep a watch. Once, about midnight, Ensign Richard Walker, who was on the guard, heard the bushes break near him, and felt an arrow pass through his coat and ” buff waistcoat.” As the night was dark he could see no one, but he discharged his gun, which, being heavily loaded, split in pieces. He then called the guard, and returned to the place, when he had another arrow shot through his cloths. Deeming it imprudent to proceed in the dark against a concealed enemy, he desisted from further search till morning. The people then assembled, and discharged their cannon into the woods; after which, the Indians gave them no further molestation.”
( Lewis’ History of Lynn, Annals of 1631 )
The Terratines (Micmac) never again attacked below the Merrimac River after 1631.
About 1630 Masconomet was in Saugus, and with other Indians witnessed the sale of Nahant and other land by Black Will, to William Witter for two pestal stones. ( Felt )
In 1634 the General Court ordered Charlestown to make restitution to the Sagamore of Agawam for damage done to his corn by Charlestown’s unfenced swine.( The woods between Chabacco and Gloucester abounded in free running swine. In 1640 they were to be yoked, in1661 impounded, in 1794 they should not go at large at all. Their noses were ringed. Deer-reeves mentioned in 1739.)
In 1637 John Winthrop, Jr. secured from Masconomet, a release of the land lying between Labor-in-vain and Chebacco creeks, which constituted Mr.Winthrop’s farm.The consideration paid by Winthrop consisted of twenty pounds, wampampeage, & other things.
June 28, 1638, Winthrop secured a further release of the territory of Agawam. This deed included all the land along the coast from the Merrimack to the Chabacco rivers, “and all such land as I formerly reserved for my own use at Chebacco”, Mr. Dummers farm excepted only. Masconomet appeared before the General Court, in Boston, March 13, 1639, and acknowledged that Mr. Winthrop had paid him twenty pounds for this deed, and that he was fully satisfied.
William Jeffrey called an ” Old Planter ” by Winthrop obtained his title to Jeffrey’s neck in Ipswich persumably from Masconomet.
March 5, 1639 – Masconnomet is to have his gun mended, which the Governor’s servant broke. He is also allowed to kill fowl and deer. He acknowledges himself satisfied with what Mr.Winthrop paid him for his right to the territory of this town.
On May 8, l643 Masconomet along with several other sachems placed themselves under the protection of the English. The Agawams were friendly toward the English but the English did not compleatly trust them. They were disarmed for several months in 1642 on a rumor that they and several other tribes were plotting against the English.
March 28, 1654 -Andrew Creek and Mary Indian to be whipped (both were servants of William Payne presented for fornication).
The Town of Ipswich granted Masconomet a life estate in six acres of planting land on February 21, l655. The selectmen on June 18, l658 ” granted the sagamore’s widow to enjoy that parcel of land which her husband had fenced in, during the time of her widowhood. This was a parcel of land set of to the Sagamore in l655 but not property to any but himself.
Joseph English acknowledged the deed to Marblehead on July 18, 1684.
October 11, 1700 the Town of Beverly paid Samuel English, his wife Susannah, Joseph English, Jeremiah Wauches and his wife Bettey Wauches six pounds, six shillings, and eight pence for title to the land.
The deed to Manchester dated December 19, 1700, for the sum of £3 19S silver money of New England was signed by Sam’l English & Joseph English and John Umpee, all living in Middlesex County. The deed states that the English enjoyed the soil with the consent of our Grandfather, Sagamore John, of Agawam, alias Masquenomoit, and ever since by consent of his children, and by us his grandchildren. This same year Beverly and Gloucester paid for their Indian Deed.
On December 19, 1700 the town of Manchester paid Samuel English, Joseph English and John Umpee three Pounds and nineteen shillings of current silver money of New England for the deed to their town. Joseph English did not sign this deed.
The deed to Wenham, dated on the same day as the deed to Manchester. (Dec.19,1700).
This deed was executed and acknowledged by Samuel English and John Umpee, but was not executed by Joseph English. The consideration paid was four pounds and sixteen shillings.
The deed to the town of Newbury was secured for ten pounds from Samuel English (Joseph English being deceased ?) on January 10, 1701.
January 14, 1701 – Samuel English gave the people of Gloucester a deed to their town for the consideration of seven pounds.
Indian Hill, in Newbury, was owned by Great Tom. He is supposed to have been the last Indian proprietor of lands in that town. In written instruments, he styles himself, “I Great Tom Indian.” (Drake)
On January 16, 1701- Samuel English gave the people of Boxford a deed to their town for the consideration of nine pounds in current money, charges of about one pound and four shillings were paid for the Indians as well as furnishing them with food and drink. It is not known why Joseph English and John Umpee did not release their intrest in the land at this time, as all were present apparently.On October 10, 1701, the other two Indians signed a deed similar to the one signed by Samuel English. They were paid two shillings and sixpence in silver, and they were furnished with “rum and victuals enough.”
On January 17, 1701 the people of Rowley made an agreement with Samuel English to give them a deed to their town for nine pounds.
A deed was prepared on January 30, 1701 by the people of Bradford for the release of claims to their town. For consideration of three pounds and ten shillings in silver Samuel English, Joseph English and John Umpee released their intrest in the land including Gage’s Island in the Merrimac River, but excepting Mr. Phillips’ farm of 300 acres.The three Indians signed this deed at different times: Samuel English on March 21, 1701; Joseph English on July 31, 1701: John Umpee on October 22, 1701.
The next and last place to which these Indians laid claim was Topsfield, a deed was executed by Sameul English on March 28, 1701, for a consideration of three pounds current money.
Masconomet died before June 18, l658 and was buried along with his gun, tomahawk and other items of the hunt on Sagamore Hill in Hamilton. His wife was buried there upon her death.( perhaps the location of his life estate)
On March 6, 1659 his skull was dug up by a vandal and paraded on a pole through the streets of Ipswich. The vandal was punished for this act.
His remains were reburied on Sagamore Hill. A stone with a plaque markes his grave today.
Feb.12, 1673 – Thomas Tyler of Martha’s Vineyard, Masconomet’s son gave a deed to Bartholmew Gale of Salem for the 40 acre Misery Island off the Beverly Shore.
Joe English was faithful to the whites, and had been captured in Dunstable, and taken to Canada, but escaped and returned to Dunstable. The hostile Indians determined that he should die, and pursued him constantly. Lieutenant Butterfield and wife, while riding on horseback between Dunstable and Chelmsford, with “Joe” on foot, as a companion and guard, were fired upon by the savages. The horse was killed and the lieutenant and his wife fell. “Joe” and the lieutenant escaped. One of the Indians was left in charge of Mrs. Butterfield, and the others followed “Joe” who ran for his life through the woods. At length a shot struck his arm, breaking it. His gun fell, and he redoubled his speed, but as he gained the thick woods another shot struck him in the thigh and he fell. He heard a shout of triumph of his pursuers, and then a hatchet ended his earthly career. This was on July 27, 1706, and the place was “Joe English Hill” in New Boston, N.H. On behalf of the widow of “Joe”, the provence of Massachusetts Bay was petitioned Aug.14, 1706, that some provision be made for her,” for his [Joe’s] good service in giving intelligence of ye enemies motions” and ” being lately killed in the Country’s service.” She was given four yards of Duffields to make blankets for herself and two children.
PECKANAMINET – alias Ned, sometimes called Acocket
A sagamore of the Agawams in Ipswich
Ned was 68 in 1678. He and his brother Humphrey were fond of rum and generally in debt.
April 17,1652 – He mortaged about eight square miles of land, on the further side of Merrimac, lying eight or ten miles from Andover, for £30. (Felt)
Mar.28,1654 – Court held at Ipswich -Jer.Belcher v. Ned Acocket (Edward Cockett) an Indian. Debt. Withdrawn
Feb.21, 1671 – The town granted to Ned two or three acres to plant, during his life, in some convenient place, if he fence it sufficiently with stone wall.
Dec.23, 1678 – Several Indians living in a Wigwam, are furnished with provisions from the town
Feb.27, 1683 – Surveyors are empowered to lay out a small quantity of land for Ned and his family and the old sagamore’s daughter and her children, to improve for them, during the town’s pleasure (Felt)
Feb.18, 1690 – Ned is still assisted by the town, age about 82. Dec.30 – Robert an Indian, is similarly helped.
Born: about the year 1600
Son: William Nahanton
On the 7th of April, 1635, Nahanton was ordered by the Court to pay Rev. William Blackstone, of Boston, two beaver skins, to damage done to his swine by setting traps.
In 1642 he is listed as a guide and interpetor for the English.
1658 – He signed the deed to Nantasket where he referes to himself as being of “Puncapaug” .
In a disposition taken at Natick, August 15, 1672, he is called ” old Ahaton of Punkapog, aged about seaventy yeares; ” and in a disposition at Cambridge, October 7, 1686, he is called ” Old Mahanton, aged about ninty years.” In the same disposition he is called Nahanton. He testifies concerning the right of the heirs of Wenepoykin to sell the lands of Salem, and declares himself a relative of Sagamore George. He signed the deed of Quincy, August 5, 1665, and in that deed is called ” old Nahatun, “one of the ” wisemen ” of Sagamore Wampatuck. He also signed a quit-claim deed to ” the proprietated inhabitants of the town of Boston,” March 19, 1665.(Suffolk Records)
Nahanton, became ruler of Punkapoag when Charles Josiah Chickatalbut died sometime after 1685.
John Eliot says of him, “Our chief ruler is Ahauton, an old, steadfast friend of the English, and loveth his country. He is more loved than feared; the reins of his bridle are too long.”
He was a councillor of Squamaug (Daniel Chickatalbot) the Massachusets sachem.
He was the teacher and preacher to the Indians at Punkapoag. He also served as in interpreter and did sme military service for the English.
August 5, 1665 – Signed the deed to Quincy, then Braintree, along with Chickatalbot, his father Nahanton, and several other Indians.
1688 – His wife of Pecunit was condemned by Justice Daniel Gookin for conduct unbecomming a wife and mother. As her sentence she was required to stand on the gallows at Boston for an hour with the rope around her neck. She was then returned to prison and on the following day she was publicly whipped by the Indian Constable ‘not to exceed thirty stripes’.
After returning to Pecunit she “dashed out her brains” by jumping headfirst from a large rock.
1690 – He visited Major-General Stoughton to consult on the safety of the Friendly Indians. Later he accompanied some Natick Indians to Judge Sewall on a similar mission.
1704 – In a meeting held at Pecunit, the Punkapoag Indians gave him the improvement of Beaver Meadow during his life for his “labors in the ministry” among them.
His heirs, after him, signed many deeds between June 5, 1723 and July 16, 1799 recorded in the Suffork Records.
Sachem of Boston under Chickatalbot sachem of the Massachusetts (history of Charlestown).
He signed a treaty placing himself under English protection September 13, 1631, he was fearful of attack from Squaw Sachem.
A Massachusetts sachem
Brother: Wassapinewat, also a sachem
The only Massachusetts leader to have been known to organize armed resistance againt English settlers moving unto Indian lands on and around Massachusetts Bay. He and his followers were defeated by a force of Plymouth soilders who raided Wessagusset in 1623.
CHICKATAUBUT his name meaning house-a fire.
Died: November 30, 1633 of smallpox, along with many of his tribe.
Brother: Cutchamakin, who became Sachem of the Massachusetts on Chickatalbut’s death.
Josiah Wampatuck Chickatalbut Died:1669
Squamaug Daniel Chickatalbut
Grandson: Jeremy Chickatalbut, son of Josiah Wampatuk Chickatalbut
Great Grandson: Charles Josiah Chickatalbut, in 1684 he was the leader of the Praying Indians at Punkapoag.The land comprising the town of Dedham had been ceded by Josiah Chickatalbot at a meeting in Dorchester, in 1683 several Indians contested his right to sell land without their approval. Dedham secured confirmation of its Indian deed from Charles Josiah Chickatalbut on April 18, 1685. He was the the last of the Chickatalbut name ( Drake ) He died leaving no heirs.
Sachem of Passonagessit (Weymouth), his domain was bounded on the north and west by the Charles River, and on the south extended to Weymouth and Canton. He once commanded about three thousand men. His name means ” House-A-Fire” By 1630 because of disease this number had been reduced to only fifty to sixty subjects.
Son: Josiah Wampatuk Chickatalbut, became sachem upon the death of his uncle Cutchamakin, who was regent for Josiah Wampatuck, a minor. He led a force of about 700 Massachusett and Nipmuck Indians against the Mohawks at Caughnawaga in 1669. He was killed along with about 50 of his best men. This was the last campaign the Massachusett Indians led against the Mohawks.
Squaumaug Daniel Chickatalbut, Sachem of the Massachusetts in 1670, was the brother and successor of Josiah Wampatuck Chickatalbut,who was killed in an expedition against the Mohawks in 1670.
Squamoug Daniel Chickatalbut residing at Middleborough 1670, delivered the deed of Dorchester in behalf of his brother Josiah who had been killed in the Mohawk War a year earlier.
Jeremy Chickatalbut living at Middleborough 1671, In this year he testified that Squamaug Daniel Chickatalbut, his father Josiah Wampatuk Chickatalbut’s brother acted as sachem in his behalf during his minority.
” He paid tribute to Massasoit. .”
“Upon the river of Neponset, near to the Massachusetts Fields, dwelleth Chickatalbott, who hath between fifty and sixty subjects. This man least favoreth the English of any Sagamore ( for so are the king with us called, as they are sachims southwards,) we are acquainted with, by reason of the old quarrel between him and those of Plymouth, wherein he lost seven of his best men; yet he lodged one night the last winter at my house in a friendly manner.”( Deputy Governor Thomas Dudley’s letter to the countess of Lincoln, March 12, 1631) The Neponset river seperates Dorchester from Quincy and Milton.
“Three miles to the North of Wessaguscus, (Weymouth) is Mount Wallaston, ( in Quincy.) This place is called Massachusetts Fields, where the greatest sagamore in the country lived, before the plague, who caused it to be cleared for himself ” (Wood’s New England Prospects ).
He had his chief seat not far from the Neponset River at Moswetuset Hummock, or Sachem’s Knoll, opposite the Dennison flying field in Squantum.
His residence according to Wood’s map, made in 1633, was on the Eastern bank of the Neponset river, in Quincy, proably not far from Squantum.
” The Massachusetts fields ,” had some years before been cleared of trees by the Sachem Chickatawbut, who had made his home there. He had, however, abandoned it at the time when the great pestilence swept away his tribe, and tradition still points out a small savin-covered hummock, near Squantum, on the south side of Neponset, as his subsequent dwelling-place. Morton says Chickatawbut’s mother was buried at Passanagessit, and that the Plymount people, on one of their visits, incurred his enmity by despoiling her grave of its bear skins.( New English Canaan. Thomas Morton).
One of the Blue Hills , from which Massachusetts got it’s name, is called Chickatalbot in honor of this Sachem who lived not far away.
Of the graves found by the Plymouth settlers which they opened and rifled with their usual disregard of right and decency, one contained the body of the mother of this sachem. Over the body was set a stake. Two large bearskins sewed together and hung to the stake, were spread over the ground. These were appropriated by the English and taken away. When the sachem learned of the despoiling of his mothers grave he complained to his people and demanded immediate vengence. He was undoubtly present at the attack at Nauset, and may have been the one wounded. (Drake, Book of the Indian) Despite these problems it is recorded that he came often to the English.
Chickatalbott, along with eight other sachems, placed himself under English protection by a treaty signed September 16, 1621. He was fearful of attack by Squaw Sachem.
1622- There was about the same time one Mr. Weston, an English merchant, who sent divers men to plant and trade, who sat down by the river Wesaguscus. But these coming for not so good end as those of Plymouth, sped not so well; for the most of them dying and languishing away, they who survived were rescued by those of Plymouth out of the hands of Chickatalbott and his Indians, who oppressed these weak English, and intended to have destroyed them, and the Plymotheans also, as is set down in a tract written down by Mr. Winslow, of Plymouth.
Also, divers merchants of Bristow, and some other places, have yearly for these eight years,(1623 -1631) or thereabouts, sent ships hither at the fishing times to trade for beaver; where their factors dishonestly, for their own gains, have furnished the Indians with guns, swoards, powder and shot.
1629 – The Narragansetts numbering about 100 came in to his territory to hunt and stay the winter. They killed many deer, turkies and beavers which skins they traded at Wassaguscus for corn and other things they needed. Chicatalbot not powerful enough to stop them spread the rumor that these Narragansetts were spies sent to spy on the English.To further his tale he asked that his wifes and children be kept in one of the English houses for protection.The English began to take precations when trading with these Narragansetts, such as wearing armour and keeping weapons nearby. The Indians who came to trade would eat in the English house and before leaving noticed these actions and made the Narragansetts believe the English would do them harm and they returned to their own territory.
March 23, 1631 – Chickatalbot brought Governor Winthrop a hogshed of Indian Corn for a present.At this time Winthrop had moved from his ” Great House” in Charlestown, to a newer abode on State Street on the site of the Exchange Building, the present home of the State Street Trust Company. He assured theEnglish of his friendship causing them to cancel their plans to build a fortified town at Newton, now Cambridge and remain at Boston. ” After they had all dined, and had each a small cup of sack and beer, and the men tobacco, he sent away all his men and women ( though the governour would have stayed them, in regard of the rain and thunder). Himself and one squaw and one sannop stayed all night, and being in English cloths, the governour set him at his own table where he behaved himself as soberly ect. as an Englishman. The next day after dinner he returned home, the governour giving him cheese and pease and a mug and some other small things.” (Winthrops Journal).
April 13, 1631 -Chickatalbot visited the Governor and told him he wished to but a suit of English Cloths. The Governor called in his tailor and ordered that a suit of cloths be made for Chickatalbot, whereupon Chickatalbot gave his host two large skins of coat beaver. Dinner was served to Chickatalbot and and his friends, after which he departed saying he would return in three days for his cloths. Anxious for the cloths he returned in two days. Winthrop says, ” put him into a very good new suit from head to foot,” which is said to have fitted well; ” and after he set meat before them; but he would not eat until the governour had given thanks, and after meat he desired him to do the like, and so departed.” He evidently knew that the Puritans gave thanks before meals and so refused to partake of the food until grace had been said. (Winthrop’s
June 14, 1631 – At a Court, John Sagamore and Chickatabot being told at last Court of some injuries that their men did to our cattle and giving consent to make satisfaction, ect., now one of their men was complained of for shooting a pig, ect., ( which belonged to Richard Saltonstall ) for which Chickatabot ( after a month of investigation ) was ordered to pay a small skin of beaver, which he presently paid.
September 6, 1631 – At the last Court a young fellow ( John Dawe, who was probably a servant ) was wipped for soliciting an Indian squaw to incontinency; her husband and she complained of the wrong, and were present at the execution and very well satisfied.
( Winthrop’s Journal )
September 25, 1631 – For the crime of stealing two baskets of Indian corn from Chickatalbott, who farmed on Milton Hill, Josiah Plaistowe was fined £5 and degraded from his status as a “Gentleman” and two of his servants were sentenced to be whipped.
In l632 Canonicus the Narragansett Sachem sent a messenger to both Sagamore John and Chikataubut demanding their help in a war with the Wampanoag. John went to Rhode Island along with 30 of his men. The English at Plymouth had intervened before they reached the Narragansetts and the war was over. However the Narragansetts were also at war with the Pequots at the time and decided to send the two Massachusetts groups along with some of their own men against them. The Pequot proved too strong for this force and both Sagamore John and Chikataubut returned home. This incident shows that both sachems were in some way subject to the Narragansetts.
1632- Two of Chickatabots men were convicted of assultng some persons of Dorchester in their houses. ” They were put in the bilboes,” and himself required to beat them, which he did.
1635 – The Court of Assistants was trying to determine the boundries of a tract of land sold to William Pynchon of Roxbury by Chickatalbot.
He died in November of 1633 during the smallpox epidemic along with many of his people.
JOSIAH WAMPATUCK CHICKATALBUT
Born: About 1627? Died: 1669
Children: 1 son known, Jeremy Ckickatalbut
Brother: Squamaug Daniel Chickatalbut
The residence of the family of Chicatalbot was at Tehticut now part of Middleborough (Drake).
1653 – Josias, or Josiah Wampatuck, sachem of Mattakeesett, and, from the deeds which he gave, must have been the owner of much of the land southward of Boston. In 1653, he sold to Timothy Hatherly, James Cudworth, Joseph Tilden, Humphrey Turner, William Hatch, John Hoare, and James Torrey, a large tract of land in the vicinity of Accord Pond and North River.
1662 – Josiah Wampatuck sold Pachage Neck, now called Ptchade, ” lying between Namassakett river and a brook falling into Teticutt river, viz. the most westerly of the three small brookes that do fall into the said river;” Likewise all the meadow upon three said brooks, for £21. Also, another tract bounded by Plimouth and Duxbury on one side, and Bridgewater on the other, extending to the great pond Mattakeeset; provided it included not the 1,000 acres given to his son and George Wampey, about those ponds. This deed was witnessed by George Wampey and John Wampowes.
After the death of his father, Josias was often called Josias Chikataubut. In the Plimouth Records we find this notice,but without date: ” Memorandum, that Josias Chickabutt and his wife doe owne the whole necke of Punkateesett, to belong unto Plymouth men,” &c.
August 5, 1665, Quincy, then Braintree, was deeded by a son of Chickatalbot, in these terms:
“To all Indian people to whom these presents shall come; Wampatuck, alias Josiah Sagamore, of Massathusetts, in Newengland, the son of Chikataubut deceased, sendeth greeting. Know yoo that the said Wampatuck, being of full age and power, according to the order and custom of the natives, hath, with the consent of his wise men, viz. Squamog, his brother Daniel, and old Hahatun, and William Mananiomott, Job Nassott, Manuntago William Nahanton. For divers goods and valuable reasons therunto; and in special for” £ 21 10s in hand. It was subscribed and witnessed thus: – Josiah, alias Wampatuck; Daniel Squamog; Old Nahatun; William Manunion; Job Noistenns; Robert, alias Mamuntago; William Hahatun, and all their marks. In the presence of: Thomas Keyahgunsson; Joseph Manunion; Thomas Wetmous, and all their marks.
1668 – “Josias Chickatabutt, sachem of Namassakeesett,” sold to Robert Studson of Scituate, a tract of land called Nanumackeuitt, for a ” valuable consideration,” as the deed expresses it. This tract was bounded on the east by Scituate.
1669 – War between the Massachusetts Indians and the Mohawks. In the year 1669, ” the war having now continued between the Maquas and our Indians, about six years, divers Indians, our neighbors, united their forces together, and made an army of about 6 or 700 men, and marched into the Maquas’ country, to take revenge on them. This enterprise was contrived and undertaken without the privity, and contrary to the advice of their English friends. Mr. Eliot and myself [Daniel Gookin], in particular, dissuaded them, and gave them several reasons against it, but they would not hear us.” Five of the Christian Indians went with them, and but one [James Rumneymarsh] only returned alive. ” The chiefest general in this expedition was the principle sachem of Massachusetts, named Josiah, alias Chekatabutt, a wise and stout man, of middle age, but a very vicious person. He had considerable knowledge in the Christian religion; and sometimes, when he was younger, seemed to profess it for a time; – for he was bred up by his uncle, Kuchamakin, who was the first sachem and his people to whom Mr. Eliot preached.”
Of those who went out with Wampatuck from other tribes we have no record, but there were many, probably, as usual upon such expeditions.
This army arrived at the Mohawk fort after a journey of about 200 miles; when, upon besieging it some time, and having some of their men killed in sallies, and sundry others sick, they gave up the siege and retreated. Meanwhile the Mohawks pursued them, got in their front, and, from an ambush, attacked them in a defile, and a great fight ensued. Finally the Mohawks were put in flight by the extraordinary bravery and prowess of Chikataubut and his captains. But what was most calamitous in this disastrous expedition, was, the loss of the great chief Chikataubut, who, after performing prodigies of valor, was killed in repelling the Mohawks in their last attack, with almost all his captains, in number about 50, as was supposed. This was a severe stoke to these Indians, and they suffered much from chagrin on their return home. The Mohawks considered themselves their masters,and although a peace was brought about between them, by the mediation of the English and Dutch on each side, yet the Massachusetts and others often suffered from their incursions.
March 19, 1695 – The followin deed was given by Josiah Wampatuck Chickatalbut’s Grandson, Charles Josiah Chickatalbut ” Charles Josias, alias Josiah Wampatuck, grandson of Chickataubut, of Boston and the adjacent country, and the islands in the harbor, to the proprietated inhabitants of the town of Boston, Foreasmuch as I am informed, and well assured from several ancient Indians, as well as those of my council as others, that, upon the first coming of the English to sit down and settle in those parts of New England, my above-named grandfather, Chikataubut, by and with the advice of his council, for encouragement thereof moving, did give, grant, sell, alienate, and confirm unto the English planters,” the lands above named.
Besides Josias, there signed the deed with him, Ahawton; sen., William Hahaton; and Robert Momentauge.
This deed was recorded in Suffork County in 1708.
KATSHAMIKIN – Cutchamakin and many more spellings of his name
Sachem of Dorchester ( Cohannet Indians )
Died: Early 1650’s
Most influential sachem of the Massachusetts tribe in 1651, he opposed the building of the Praying Indian town of Natick because he feared loss of power, later became one of it’s leaders.
He was a kinsmen of Passaconaway, the sachem north of the Merrimack River.
Brother In Law of Chickatalbot and his successor.
Uncle of Josiah Chickatalbut, sachem after him.
Dorchester was settled by the English in 1630. According to tradition the first settlers landed upon the South Side of Dorchester Neck or South Boston, in Old Harbor. Ten of the men, under the command of Capt. Southcote, found a small boat, and went up river to Charlestown Neck, where they found an Old Planter, probably Thomas Walfourd, who fed them ” a dinner of fish without bread.” Later they continued their journey up the Charles River, as far as what is now Watertown, returning several days later to the company who found pasture for their cattle at Mattapan. The settlement was later called Dorchester, in honor of the Rev. John White, of Dorchester, England.
The area was a wilderness and they had little food. They were forced to live on clams and fish. The men built small boats, and the Indians came later with baskets of corn.
In October of 1636, Richard Collicott, acting as a Trustee for the town, received a grant from Cutshumaquin of the whole territory of Unquenty ( Milton ), including forty acres of land for himself, conferred by the town.
Accompanied the English in action against the Pequots in 1636.He shot and scalped one of that tribe, for which Canonicus the Narraansett sachem gave him four fathoms of wampum to express his approval.
In 1636, he was allowed by the General Court sufficient gunpowder for nine or ten shots, that he might kill some fowl for himself.
Disarmed in 1642 of even his bows and held in The Boston jail for a night as a result of a rumor of conspiricy of the Indians against the English. He was used as a messenger by the English to Passaconaway at this time, in an effort to disarm the Penacooks.
In 1642, he desired that the colonial authorities give him a coat, the matter was refered to the treasurer of the colony, Captian Edward Gibbons
On March 7, 1643-44, he was one of five Indian sachems who submitted themselves voluntarily to the jurisdiction of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
On June 22, 1643 Miantonomo visited Boston to testify before Cutshamekin and other Indian if he had any authority over the lands of the Sachems Pomham and Socononoco who submitted themselfs and their lands on this date to the Massachusetts Colony. He could prove none and the colony claimed Shawomet (Warwick RI).Miantonomo made seven trips to Boston before his death in August 1643.
1646 – Cutshamekin at first opposed the English religion claiming that the Indian converts no longer would pay him tribute, however he became reconciled to it. Governor Winthrop mentions, that Mr. Eliot lectured constantly ” one week at the wigwam of one Waban, a new sachem near Watertown mill, and the other the next week in the wigwam of Cutshamekin near Dorchester mill.”
As regards to the Indians not paying him tribute, they testified to Elliot that: At one time they gave him twenty bushels of corne, at another time more than sixe bushels; two hunting dayes they killed him fifteen deeres; they brake up for him two acres of land, they made for him a great house or wigwam, they made twenty rods of fence for him, with a ditch and two railes about it, they paid a debt for him of 3.li. 10.s, only some other were contributors in this money; one of them gave him a skin of beaver of two pounds, at his returne from building, besides many dayes workes in planting corne altogether and some severally. (Whitfield 1834:141)
May 6, 1646 – He gave an oral deed before the General Court at Boston to the land where the English town of Andover stood (called Cochickawick by the Indians ) to six miles southward (now the center of North Andover), easterly to the Rowley line ( now the Boxford town line ), and northward to the Merrimac River( a part of which is now in Lawrence), for consideration of £6 and a coat. A provision was made that Roger, the Indian, and ” his Company ” have liberty to take alewifes in the Cochickawick River and Roger could continue to plant the four acres of ground he now plants.On that day Cutchamekin was allowed to buy two or three pounds of swan shot.
In 1648, Cutchamekin and Jojeuny appear as witnesses to a deed made by another Indian called Cato, alias Goodman. Lane and Griffin were the grantees ” in behalf of the rest of the people of Sudbury.” The tract of land sold adjoined Sudbury, and was five miles square; for which Cato received five pounds. Jojeuny was brother to Cato.(Drake)
NASHACOWIN – Nathawannon and WASSAMUG – Wassamegen
Two sachems near Wachusetts
TAHATTAWAN – (sometimes written Natahattawants, Tahattawants, Attawan, Attawance, and Ahatawance)
Sachem of the Musketaquid ( Concord )
Son: John Tahattawan, ruler of the Praying Indians at Nashoba.
Daughters: His eldest daughter married Waban.
Naanashquaw, another daughter, married Naanishcow, called John Thomes, who died at Natick, aged 110 years. (Drake)
In 1642, he sold to Simon Willard, in behalf of “Mr. Winthrop, Mr. Dudley, Mr.Nowell, and Mr. Alden.” a large tract of land upon both sides of the Concord River. ” Mr. Winthrop our present governor, 1,260 acres, Mr. Dudley, 1,500 acres, on the S.E. side of the river, Mr. Nowell, 500 acres, and Mr. Allen 500 acres, on the N.E. side of the river, and in consideration hereof the said Simon giueth to the said Nattahattawants six fadom of waompampege, one wastcoat, and one breeches, and the said Nattahattawants doth covenant and bind himself, that hee nor any other Indians shall set traps within this ground, so that any cattle might recieve hurt thereby, and what cattle shall receive hurt by this meanes, hee shall be lyable to make good.”In this deed Nattahattawants is called sachem of that land. The marks of Natahattawants and Winnipin, An Indian who traded for him. (Drake)
He was a sagamore, or “sachem of the blood, or chief of the royal line,” of Musketaquid; and appears to have possessed rights in the soil equal if not superior to Squaw Sachem; and like her to have concented to its sale. What the connection was between him and Squaw Sachem is not fully known. He was an upright Indian who attended the preachings of Eliot and Newton. The following members of his family became Christians and removed to Natick and Nashobah.
JOHN TAHATTAWN – son of Tahattawan, removed from Concord to Nashobah. He was chief ruler of the praying Indians gathered there. He died about 1670. He married Sarah, daughter of John, Sagamore of Patucket, who after her husbands death married Oonamog, one of the rulers of the praying Indians at Marlborough, with who she lived a short time only. She was living at Patucket, as a widow, in November 1675, when she was wounded by some unfriendly whites, and her only son by Tahattawan was slain.
Tahattawan’s sole heir was Kehonowsqua, alias Sarah; and is first mentioned in the deed of Nashobah given to the Hon. Peter Bulkeley in 1686.
WABAN – ( the wind )
Born: Unknown Died: 1684 at Natick
Wife : Tasunsquaw, eldest daughter of Tahattawan, sachem of Concord.
Son: Thomas Waban
From old document it appears that he originally lived in Concord and was proably born there. He is called “merchant” in the records, proably on account of his occupation. He was not a sachem by birth but through marrage into the royal line. After the English Settled Concord, he removed to Newton, where in 1646, he became the first convert to Christianity under Eliot. He assisted in gathering the church and society at Natick, of which he was chosen chief ruler during his life.He died in 1674 aged 70.
His widow was living at Natick in 1684. His son Weegrammomenet alias Thomas Waban, recieved a tolarable education and was town clerk at Natick for many years. His name frequently appears in Indian deeds.
He was sent to Deer Island in 1675
THOMAS WABAN – Town clerk of Natick
Died: 1722 at Natick
Wife: Tasoonque ( Elizabeth )
Children: His only daughter Mary died childless a few years after her father and before her mother.
Sons (2): Isaac, the youngest, worked as a laborer, was thrown into debtor’s jail, and then fled the provence. He died in 1746 leaving an orphaned daughter.
Thomas Jr., the eldest son, died in 1733 leaving 4 sons and a daughter:
Thomas the 3rd died in 1752, his wife died in 1753 leaving an orphaned daughter.
Moses and Joshua died without children.
Hezekiah died during an expedition to Cuba in the King George’s War he had 3 sons.
Jabaz, one of Hezekiah’s sons was given to an Englishman, Benjamin Muzzy of Sherborn, but ran away to Boston at age 17 an Enlisted on an English Man-of-War. Captured by Muzzy before the ship sailed, he fled again two months later. Jabez fell ill during his final flight, returning after 5 months, and died in March 1751 at about 18 years old.
Thomas Waban left a will: most of his real estate went to his son Isaac, including his 35 acre house lot, the use of the house on that lot, his orchards and 2 acres of meadowland. His proprietary rights were divided between Isaac and Thomas Jr. 15 acres went to help two other young relatives. His widow, Elizabeth, about whom little is known, was to inharit £40, to be raised by selling some of his land, along with his ” household goods, debts, and moveable effects”. He owned very few consumer goods, a few books in the Massachusetts language, a brass kettle, an iron pot and pot hooks, wooden dishes and spoons, and an old barrel.
His estate was administered by Nathaniel Coochuck, who had married Waban’s third child, Mary. Waban’s debts were quite large, and unfortunatly these grew soon after his death when his widow ( who challanged the will ) and three other relatives died, proably in one of the many epidemics that scourged the Indian town. Their funeral expenses including four coffins, were charged to Waban’s estate.
1684 – several Indians including a Capt. Tom charged that Waban and Great James had sold Okommakamesit without authority and kept the proceeds.
A cencus taken by Natick leaders in 1749 reported 167 natives in 55 households but not one was a Waban.
Thomas Waban originally kept the Natick town records in the Massachusetts Language and later in English.
NAAISHEOW – alias John Thomas
Died: Jan.17, 1727
Wife: Naanashquaw, alias Rebeckah, another daughter of Tahattawan.
His father had been a leading man at Nashobah and was killed by the Mohawks. He was a teacher at Nashobah until it was abandoned, then moved to Natick where he died , Jan 17, 1727 at the age of 110 years. His eldest son was Solomon Thomas, alias Naashiomenett, who became influential at Natick.
PENNAHANNIT – alias Capt. Josiah
He was marshal – general or high – sheriff to all the praying Indian towns, and attended the chief courts held at Natick and elsewhere, dwelt at Nashobah, and was chief ruler of that place after the death of John Tahattawan.
JETHRO – alias Tantamous
He was present at the first purchase of Concord. He embraced Christianity and removed to Natick. In 1674, he was appointed missonary to the Indians at Weshakim (Sterling), but continued there only a short time. In l674 Eliot had established two churches and fourteen towns, contaning 1,100 inhabitants.During the king Philips war this number was muched reduced. Many of them became the worst enemies of the English. Some suffered death for their defection ( Mattoonus, constable of Pakachoog, was executed. ) The remainder were gathered into English towns, and were of essential service to the English during the King Philips war. The whole number, on November 10, 1676, was 567 only, of which 117 were men and 450 women and children. The Nashobah or Concord praying Indians who remained friendly to the English, were 10 men and 50 women and children, and lived in Concord under the inspection of the commitee of militia, and the selectmen of the town.
A sachem who lived on the Connecticut River
He came to Boston in 1631 and requested of Governor Winthrop ” to have some English to plant in his country;” he offered to ” find them corn,and give them, yearly, 80 skins of beaver.” He was accompined by Sagamore John and an Indian from Virginia named Jackstraw, who was his interpreter. He most likely made the offer hoping the English would protect him from thePequots.The governor denied his request.
Great sachem of the Tarratines (1621), the Tarratines lived on the bay and waters of the Penobscot. (history of Charlestown)
MONOCO (One Eyed John)
Sachem of Concord in 1675 or some Indians thereabouts (Increase Matther – History of King Philips War) A Nipmuck?, led enemy Indians in attack on Medfield.
Sachem of Mohican tribe in Connecticut, fought with English against Pequots in 1637 and against Philip in 1675-1676.
Wive(s): eventually he had at least six wives in an attempt to gain the power and prestige he sought through the kinship of his wives families.
By 1627 Uncas had married the daughter of the Pequot’s principle sachem, Tatobem,( sometimes know as Wopeqworrit, ) the sister of Sassacus. She was originally to have married Uncas’ elder brother who died before the marrage was completed. This marrage had been arranged so that ” they [the Mohegans and the Pequots} should keep their lands entire from any violation either from neighboring or foreign Indians”. (Trumbull 1885:103)
Uncas made another marrage only months after the Pequot war (1637) to one of the wifes of his late father-in-law,Tatobem, the Pequot sachem killed by the Dutch in 1634.
In the spring of 1638, he sent a delegation to Boston to buy or ransom a Pequot women whom he intended to marry. His offer of ten fathoms of wampum was equivalent to the maximum bride price for a sachems daughter, according to Roger Williams. Williams noted in the same report that Uncas “hath taken 2 daughters Marie and Jane both to wife”. Two years later, Williams reported thet ” the Squa sachims daughter is married to the sachim Onkas”.
Uncas considerably extended his territories by marring the daughter of the Hammonassetts sachem, Sebequanash; thus comming into possession of the seashore as far east as the Aigicomock,or East River, in Guilford.
By 1640, Uncas had an unprecedented six or seven wives and had just married a daughter of the Pawtucket squaw sachem .( R. Williams )
In 1647, he took possession of the wife of Obechiquod and kept her for his own, He defiled the wife of Sanaps, another of his subjects, and robbed the disconsolate husband of his corn and beans. (DeForest)
He was the son of Oweneco, a Pequot Sachem, and Meekunumo, a daughter of Woipeguand Great Sachem of the Pequots killed by the Dutch. He was married to a daughter of Sassacus,Woipeguand’s son who succeeded him as Sachem upon his death.
The genealogy of Uncas is found in Trumbull ( 1885: 101-4 ) This document created by Uncas in 1679,with English legal assistance.
Sons: Uncas had at least three sons, Oneko ( Oweneco) the oldest,who went to Boston with about fifty other Mohican warriors (including his brothers Attawanhood and Ben who were held hostage at Cambridge until the Mohegans proved themselves loyal) to join the Colonist against Philip in 1675. He succeeded Uncas as sachem of the Mohegans. He died in 1715 at 70 or 75 years of age
John, his second son.
Joshua or Attawanhood, his third son, sachem of the Western Nahantics. His residence was at Lyme, Conn. near Eight Mile Island in the Connecticut River. Died 1776
Ben Uncas, his forth son, was said to be a son to Uncas by Foxon’s daughter, not a wife of Uncas.
Some time during 1647 one of his children died, upon which the sachem presented consolatory gifts to the mother, and ordered the Pequots with threats, to do the same.
John: Had a son, also, named John
Ben Uncas’s Son:Mamohet
Onewesco Sons: (3) Josiah, Mamohet (or as the English called him, Mahomet), and Cesar.
Josiah and Mamohet died before their father,and Mamohet, the son of Mamohet, being still a child, his uncle Cesar, on the death of Oweneco, became sachem.On Cesar’s death in 1723, having been sachem for eight years, Ben Uncas became sachem, he died in the spring or summer of 1726, and was followed by his son , also, named Ben Uncas,who died in 1749. He was followed by another son also named Ben. His son Isaiah, who died in 1770, never became sachem neither did a challenger named John Uncas,a son of John.
Two of the name of Uncas, John and Noah, were still living, about the year 1800.
June 1636 – Jonathan Brewster of Plymouth Colony called Uncas “faithful to the English” in a letter sent to John Winthrop, Jr.
On Nov.7,1637 Roger Williams wrote to John Winthrop “This man is but a little Sachim & hath not above 40 or 50 Mohiganeucks which as the english told me were all he could make….” But three months later, on February 28, 1638, Williams understood “that Okace (Uncas) the Monahigan hath Sasacous his ( Sassacus’s) sister to wife & one of the wives of Sasacous his father Taltaopaine, & thats one reason, besides his ambition & neereness, that he hath drawne all the scattered Peguts to himselfe & drawn much wealth from them …..”
Uncas’ chief adviser was a man named Foxum who was acknowledged even by the Massachusetts Indians to be the wisest of all the councilors.
Uncas was disliked by all the other sachems around him such as Sequassen, Pessicus of the Narragansetts, Ninigret of the Nehantics, ect., His nature was mean and jealous as well as ambitious and tyrannical. Hence, when he was not busy in conquering his neighbors, or oppressing his subjects, he was usually accusing before the English some one whom it was too troublesome or too dangerous to attack by force.
In 1640 Uncas was shot with an arrow one evening while going from one wigwam in his fort to another, he reached the wigwam where he was going, without further injury, and, entering it, was safe. The wound was slight and soon healed. The attempted was unknown; but a young Pequot, one of Uncas’ subjects, being observed to have a large quantity of wampum, fell under suspicion. This Pequot fled to the Narragansetts and Uncas blamed Miantinomo for the plot. Miantinomo presented the young Pequot before the magistrates at Boston where he testified that Uncas had cut his arm on two sides, with the flint of his gun, to make it appear that an arrow had pierced it, Uncas would have him tell the English that he had been hired, by Miantinomo, to kill Uncas.
In 1641? Arrows were shot at Uncas, as he sailed down the Connecticut River in a canoe, by warriors belonging to Sequassen, the sachem of the Connecticut River, an allie of the Narragansetts.
In 1649, one day, as he was on board an English vessel in the Thames, a Narragansett, named Cuttaquin, suddenly ran a sword inyo his breast,the wound was not fatal and Uncas recovered.
He favored the Mohegans against the Pequots, so that, if the latter won anything of the former in play, they could never collect it.He ordered the Pequots to assist him in excursions against the Indians of Long Island, and, when they refused, he cut up their fishing nets. The Pequots also accused him of taking wampum which they had sent him, to be given to the English, for his own use. (DeForest)
The Mohegans were pariahs among the other New England tribes because they continued to trade with the Mohawks.
Uncas died in 1682 or 1683, very old and an alcholic, the precise date as well as the circumstances being unknown.
Because of his descent and marriage into the royal family he felt he should have succeeded Wopigwooit as Sachem and tried twice to remove Sassacus from that position.Both attempts failed and he was forced to flee to the Narragansetts for protection. Both times he was forgiven by Sassacus, his father- in- law and allowed to return, he settled at what is now Montville. Shortly after Sassacus death he formed the Mohican Federation.
Early on in the King Philip’s war Uncas was order to Boston to surrender the firearms of his people.
They were again armed when they fought for the English.
There was a severe drought in 1676 especially in Connecticut. Trees began to whither and the Indians were concerned for their crops. Uncas implored his Powaws to make it rain, but all in vain. He went westward to a noted Powaw to ask his help but still to no avail. He then went to Mr.Fitch the faithful teacher at Norwich to ask him to pray for rain.Uncas told Fitch that him and his son Oweneco had left off Powawing and had come to him for help.
Uncas was strongly opposed to the Missionaries and although friendly to the English him and his people remained as pagans.
Uncas’ son Attawanhood left a will dated March 10, 1676, in which he states he was “sick of body”. He left behind two wives, two sons and one daughter.About four years after the father died, only one of these children, Abimelech, was living.
Oweneco sold land to the colonist while intoxicated and at prices that bore no relation to the value of the land. One of the deeds granted by Oweneco was to John Plumb for one hundred acres was because John Plumb and Jonathan King recused him after he fell out of a canoe one night while very drunk.
Oweneco, the brave warrior who, in his youth and early manhood, fought gallantly against the Pocomtocks, the Pokanokets and Narragansetts, became in his old age a mere vagabond. With his blanket, his gun, his squaw, and a pack on his back, he used often to wander about the settlements adjacent to Mohegan. At his old friends and acquaintances he was generally made welcome, and established himself, during his stay, in the kitchen or some of the out-houses.
A little ways from the city of Norwich (Conn.), towards the north, stands the royal cemetary of the tribe, containing the graves of several of the family of Uncas.
Of the graves in the inclosure, some are, and some are not, marked by stones; and two or three of the stones have been so broken that the inscriptions are now difficult to decipher. By the aid, however, of a transcription of them which was made some time ago, I am enabled to offer the following copy of these epitaphs:
For Beauty wit for sterling Sense
For temper mild for Eliquence
For Couradg Bold For things Wauregeon*
He was the Glory of Mohedgon
Whose Death has Caused great lamantation * Fine things-good clothes, ornaments, furniture, ect.
Both in ye English & ye Indian Nation
HERE LIES THE BODYES OF TWO INFANT CHILDREN OF BENJAMIN UNCAS JUN AND OF ANN UNCAS OF YE ROYAL BLOOD—–ONE DIED NOV. YE 8th 1738 YE OTHER DEC. YE 10th.
HERE LIES YE BODY OF POMPI UNCAS SON OF BENJAMIN AND ANN UNCAS AND OF YE ROYAL BLOOD WHO DYED MAY YE 1 IN 1740 IN YE 21 YEARS OF HIS AGE.
HERE LIES SAM UNCAS THE SECOND AND BELOVED SON OF HIS FATHER JOHN UNCAS WHO WAS THE GRANDSON OF UNCAS, GRAND SACHEM OF MOHEGAN. THE DARLING OF HIS MOTHER BEING DAUGHTER OF SAID UNCAS GRAND SACHEM. HE DIED JULY 31ST 1741 IN THE 28th OF HIS AGE.
IN MEMORY OF YONG SEASAR IONUS* WHO DIED APRIL 30TH 1749 IN THE 28TH YEAR OF HIS AGE AND WAS COUSIN TO UNCAS. * Probably a c has slipped from this word, so that it should read IONCUS.
In Memory of Elizabeth Joquiib the Daughter of Mohomet great grand Child to ye first Vncaus Sachem of mohagen Who Died July ye 5th 1756 Aged 33 years.
In Memory of Elizebeth Begneott Great grand child of Uncas Sachem of mohegan Who Died on ye 20th A.D. 1761Aged 14 years.
The cemetary is a small parallelogram, and is surrounded by an enclosure of granite post connected by chains.Towering above the rude gravestones within, is a monument erected by the ladies of Norwich. It is a plain obelisk of granite standing on a pedestal; and on one side of it is cut in large raised letters the simple inscription UNCAS. The cost of the monument and that of the fencing, I have been informed, was about four hundred dollars. (pre 1850)
MASSASOIT: alias Asamequin, alias Osamequin
Born: Unknown Died: Is thought to have occured in or about 1661, he was alive as late as September 1661, and his death was in the last part of that year or early 1662.
Children: 3 Sons; Wamsutta (Mooanum), Alexander, the eldest
Metacom, Philip, the middle son
Sonkanuhoo, the youngest son who perhaps is identical with the brother of King Philip said to have been slain in a swamp in Pocasset ( afterwards Tiverton ), July 18, 1775 .
Daughters: 1; Amie, his youngest child, she became the wife of the Black Sachem, so called, aka Tuspaquin and Watuspaquin.
Family: 2 Brothers:Quadequina and Akkompion
His territory in 1620 was thought to comprise all of Cape Cod, all that portion of Massachusetts and Rhode Island lying between Narragansett and Massachusetts Bays, and perhaps extendingly westwardly into what is now the state of Connecticut, together with all the contiguous islands.
The Pilgrims estimated that Massasoit commanded only about sixty men. (Mourt)
August 4, 1634 – Our neighbors of Plymouth and we have oft trade with the Dutch at Hudson’s River, called by them New Netherlands. We had from them about 40 sheep, and beaver, and brass pans, and sugar, ect., for sack, strong water, linen cloth, and other commodities. They have a great trade of beaver, about 9 or 10,000 skins in a year. Our neighboers of Plymouth had great trade also this year at Kenebecke, so as Mr. Winslowe carried with him to England this year about 20 hogsheads of beaver, the greatest pert whereof was traded for wampumpeag.
One pleasent passage happened which was acted by the Indians. Mr, Winslow coming in his bark from Connecticut to Narragansett, and he left her there, and intending to return by land, he went to Osamekin the sagamore, his old ally, who offered to conduct him home to Plymouth. But before they took their journey, Osamekin sent one of his men to Plymouth to tell them thet Mr. Winslow was dead, and directed him to show how and where he was killed. Whereupon there was much fear and sorrow at Plymouth. The next day when Osamekin brought him home, they asked him why he sent such word, ect. He answered that it was their manner to do so, that they might be more welcome when they came home……
INDIAN HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY AND GENEALOGY PERTAINING TO THE GOOD SACHEM MASSASOIT OF THE WAMPANOAG TRIBE AND HIS DESCENDANTS
By EBENEZER W. PEIRCE OF FREETOWN, MASS.
CHAPTER V. GENEALOGY
1. MASSASOIT (1), alias Asamequin, or Osamequin, chief of the Wampanoag tribe of Indians at the time of the landing of the English at Plymouth, had children as follows:
2. WAMSUTTA (2), b. at date unknown; m. Namumpum, alias Tatapanum, alias Weetamoo, and sometimes called the Squaw Sachem of Pocasset. Wamsutta appears to have first received the name of Moonanam, which was changed in or about 1641 to Wamsutta; and a few years later he accepted from the English the name of Alexander. He d. in 1662. His wife, thus made a widow, contracted a second marriage with an Indian named Petonowowett; and as he took part with theEnglish in King Philip’s war, she left him and became the wife of a Narraganset Sachem named Quinapin whom the English put to death at Newport, R.I., Aug. 6, 1676. Her remains drifted on shore in the town of Swansea. (See pages 37 to 51 and 152).
3. METACOM (2), alias Pometacom, who accepted from the English the name of Philip, but now better known in history as KING PHILIP. The date of his birth is unknown. He m. Wootonekanuske, a sister of Weetamoo. What I have been able to glean of the personal histories of both, appears in former pages of this book. He was killed in battle near Mount Hope, in what is now the township of Bristol, R.I., Aug. 12, 1676. He had a son whose name at this time cannot be certainly ascertained. This son, while yet a child, was captured by the English and sold into slavery. 
4. SONKANUHOO (2), who was perhaps identical with the brother of King Philip said to have been slain at the fight in a swamp in Pocasset (afterwards Tiverton), July 18, 1675. (See page 102).
5. A DAUGHTER (2), whose name is to me unknown. She is said to have been captured by the English, July 31, 1676. (See page 151).
6. AMIE (2), m. Tuspaquin, the Black Sachem.
6. AMIE (2) (Massasoit -1), daughter of Massasoit, chief of the Wampanoags, was born at a date unknown. She became the wife of the Black Sachem, so called, the chief of the Assawamset Indians. His name appears in history as Tuspaquin, and also as Watuspaquin. He followed the fortunes of his brother-in-law Philip, was captured by the English and put to death at Plymouth some time in September, 1676. (See p. 200.)
TUSPAQUIN and wife AMIE (2) had children as follows:
7. WILLIAM (3), was so called by the English, though his Indian name was Mantowapuct. He joined in the deeds of conveyance of lands under dates of July 17, 1669, June 10, 1670, June 30, 1672, May 14, 1675. Manotwapuct alias William Tuspaquin, with Assaweta, Tobias and Bewat, for L10, sold to three English people at Barnstable a tract of land bounded on Quetaquash Pond, northerly of Quetaquash River and easterly of Suepetnitt Pond. He also joined his father in a deed of land to an Indian named Felix, a son-in-law of John Sassamon. That deed was dated March 11, 1673 (O.S.). So far as I can learn, he never married. It is thought he lost his life in King Philip’s war, as he was alive up to May 14, 1675, and no mention is made of him after that date.
8. BENJAMIN (3), m. Weecum. 
8. BENJAMIN TUSPAQUIN (3) (Amie -2, Massasoit -1), son of Tuspaquin, was born at a date unknown at the present time. He was somewhat distinguished as a warrior, and had a piece of his jaw shot off in battle. He married an Indian named Weecum. He died suddenly, while sitting in his wigwam, having just before complained of feeling faint. He served the English in Capt. James Church’s company. *(V-1)
BENJAMIN TUSPAQUIN (3) and wife WEECUM had children as follows:
9. ESTHER (4), b. at date unknown; m. Tobias Sampson; they had no children. Tobias Sampson was what was called “a praying Indian,” and used to preach at his house in what was then South Freetown, but now East Fall River; by which his house acquired the name of the “Indian College” – or at least such is the tradition.
10. HANNAH (4), m. an Indian named Quam, and had two children: i. HOPE (5), never m.; she taught school at what is called Indian Town in Fall River. ii. JOHN (5), never m.; he was lost at sea. (Tradition).
11. MARY (4), m. Isaac Sissel *(V-2), and had three children:  MERCY (5), MARY (5), and ARBELLA (5). Two of the children died in infancy. (Tradition).
12. BENJAMIN (4), m. Mercy Felix, of Middleborough, that part now Lakeville.
12. BENJAMIN TUSPAQUIN (4) and wife MERCY FELIX had one child:
13. LYDIA (5), m. Wamsley. He went to sea and never returned.
NOTE: – Mercy Felix, who became the wife of Benjamin Tuspaquin [No. 12], was a daughter of John Sassamon, alias Wassasamon. The Indian Felix received from the Sachem Tuspaquin, and his son William Tuspaquin, a deed of 58 ½ acres of land, as “a home lott,” March 11, 1673, O.S. That land is in what is now the town of Lakeville. The chief, Tuspaquin, and his son William Tuspaquin, by deed without a date, save that of the year 1673, conveyed to John Sassamon, alias Wassasamon, “27 acrees of land for a home lot at Assowamsett necke,” which land Sassamon not long after in writing conveyed to his son-in-law Felix, the husband of his daughter Assowetough. Under date of Dec. 23, 1673, Tuspaquin, with his son William Tuspaquin, “with the consent of all the chieffe men of Assowamsett,” conveyed by deed of gift to Assowetough, daughter of John Sassamon, a neck of land at Assowamset, called Nahteawamet, bounded by Mashquomoh swamp, Sasonkususett pond, and a large pond called Chupipoggut. In 1679, Governor Winslow, of the Plymouth Colony, ordered “that all such lands as were formerly John Sassamon’s in our collonie, shal be settled on  Felix his son-in-law,” and to remain his and his heirs forever. The Indian, Felix, died before Assowetough, the wife, and she, in a will made in 1696, gave her lands to her daughter Mercy Felix, the wife of Benjamin Tuspaquin [No. 12]. Thus we see that Benjamin Tuspaquin [No. 12], a great-grandson of the chieftain Massasoit, married Mercy Felix, a granddaughter of John Sassamon, and thus the lands granted to John Sassamon and to his daughter Assowetough, and to her husband Felix, came into the possession and ownership of the Tuspaquin family. As Assowetough the daughter of John Sassamon received from the English the name of Betty, her lands thus came to be called, and are still known as “Betty’s Neck.” Esther Sampson, Hannah Quam and Mary Sissel were quite indignant at this act of their brother Benjamin Tuspaquin, viz., marrying a granddaughter of John Sassamon, whom they regarded as the prime betrayer of the cause of their countrymen and People in the struggle still known as King Philip’s war; a conflict in which their grandfather, the Black Sachem Tuspaquin, had laid down his life, their great uncle Philip had lost his kingdom and life, and the hopes of the red men had perished. And the strong dislike of these Indian women did not end with the person of their brother’s wife, but was entertained also against their brother’s daughter, Lydia Tuspaquin, the wife of the Indian Wamsley and grandmother of Mrs. Zerviah Gould Mitchell, the publisher of this book. Another objection to the wife of Benjamin Tuspaquin, entertained by his sisters, doubtless was that the Indian Felix, in King Philip’s war, had taken part with and fought for the English. In the war with the Pequots, waged in 1637, an Indian named “Sosomon” assisted the English, and as the men of the Pequot tribe were then nearly all slain, the women and children were appropriated by the victors and sold as slaves. Capt. Israel Stoughton wrote to the Governor of Massachusetts: “By this pinnace you shall receive 48 or 50 women and children unless there stay any here to be helpful. Concerning which there is one, I formerly mentioned, that is the fairest and largest that I saw amongst them, to whom I have given a coat to cloathe her. It is my desire to have her for a servant if it may stand with your good liking – else not. There is a little squaw that Steward Culacut desireth, to  whom I have given a coat. Lieut. Davenport also desireth one, to wit, a small one etc. Sosomon the Indian desireth a young little squaw, which I know not.”
WAMSUTTA – alias Alexander, was the oldest son of Massasoit
DOB: unknown Died: Sometime in 1662
WIFE: Namumpum, alias Tatapanum,alias Weetamoo, married in or before 1653, she was called the ” squaw sachem of Pocasset.”
Children: None Known
Wamsutta came to historic notice as early as 1639, under the name Moonanam. The name, according to a custom common among the natives, he soon after changed. Hence, two years later, in 1641, he appeared under the name of Wamsutta, and about fifeteen years later he accepted from the English at Plymouth the name of Alexander, which he retained until his death.
Wamsutta appears to have been inclined to sell to the English those lands claimed by his wife sometimes without her consent. In 1653 she complained to the court about a land sale made by Wamsutta. It appears that she had been the wife of a sub-chief before marrying Wamsutta and claimed the ownership of land and subjects in her own name.
Weetamoo married Petonowowett, known to the English as Ben after Wamsutta’s death. Ben served the English during the Kink Philip’s War while Weetamoo opposed the English.
KING PHILIP – Pometacom, was subjected to the following variations by the early English writers: Pumatacom, Pamatacom, Pometacome and Pometacom, also Metacomet.
Born: unknown Died: August 12,1776
Wife: Wootonekanuse,sister of Weetamoo, Alexander’s wife (Drake)
Children: one son, name unknown, sold into slavery in 1676 at 9 years old.
Second son of Massasoit, older brother Wamsutta – Alexander
Philip sold considerable tracts of land to The English in the 1660’s and early 1670’s.
Drake reports that Philip went to Nantucket, in 1665, to punish an Indian who had profaned the name of Massasoit, his father; and as it was an observance of law among them that whoever should speak evil of the dead should be put to death, Philip went there, with an armed force, to execute this law on Gibbs. He was, however, defeated in his design; for one of Gibb’s friends warned him just in time for him to escape, by running from house to house of the English with Philip in pursuit, but Gibb’s leaped over a bank and Philip lost sight of him, thus he made good his escape.
The Indian name of Gibbs was Assasamoogh.He professed the Christian religion, and preached to his countrymen at the Indian church on Nantucket, which in 1674, numbered thirty members.
Another variation of this story said that Philip captured John Gibbs, but the English asked to ransom him. Philip asked for a large sum of money for Gibbs ransom, which the English were unable to collect. In the end he received a ransom of £11 for Gibbs release.
Sachem of the Narragansetts
Born: About 1562
Died: June 4, 1647
Son: Mrisah, Meika, Mishammoh, or Maxanno, his eldest son. Became sachem upon his death. Married Quaiapen, Ninegret’s daughter.
Another son who died about 1642
Others names unknown
Brother: Mascus, Miantonomi’s father
He was the ruler of the Narragansetts at the time the English arrived at Plymouth. In the early winter of 1621 – 1622 he sent several arrows wrapped in a rattlesnake skin to Plymouth. Governor Bradford returned the skin filled with bullets. Canonicus refused it and sent it back to Plymouth.
1631 – One of Canonicus’s son visited the Massachusetts Bay settler to establish relations with them. The meeting went well with an exchange of gifts, a meal and good hospitality.
1636 – Canonicus offered John Oldham, Chibacuwese ( Prudence ) Island in Narragansett Bay, if he would establish himself in trading there.
1637 – Canonicus gave Roger Williams permission to settle in the Narragansett territory, Cannicus was close to seventy years old at this time. Williams ran a trading post in Narragansett territory between 1637 and 1651. He made the capitol of his colony at Providence.
John Winthrop, Sr. of Massachusetts accused Williams of being over zealous in his defense of the Narragansetts, Williams replied ” I am not yet turned Indian”.
It was not until 1631 that the Narragansetts established regular relations with the English, not at the closer Plymouth Colony, but with the newly arrived Massachusetts Bay colonist, they had previously been satisfied with their trade relations with the Dutch
In Nov.1637, Canonicus and Miantonomi conveyed Prudence Island to John Winthrop and Roger Williams for 20 fathoms of wampum and 2 coats. The exchange observed Williams was a gift, Williams wrote” Truth is not a penny was demanded . . . . and what was paid was only a gratuity”. Winthrop, though considered it a strict sale.
Narragansett sachem along with his uncle Canonicus
Born: About 1598 Died: September, 1643
Children: 1 known, a son Canonchet
Brothers: Pessecus, who became joint sachem with Canonicus on Miantonomi’s death. Also known as Mossup, Mosipe, Cussusquench, Sucquanch or Paticus.
1632- Miantonomi and some of his men visited Governor Winthrop at Boston, a misunderstanding occured when three of his men attempted to break into an English house during the sermon hour.
Williams wrote to Massachuseets Bay officials stating that the Narragansetts would join the English in a war against the Pequots, but they (Miantonomi, who visited Williams at his home in Providence) wanted that the women and children be spared.
Williams complained to Massachusetts officals that Miantonomi had not received a musket that was promised him for his help during the Pequot war.
In 1638 the Massachusetts Bay Colony levied a fine on the Narragansetts of £100 for injuries suffered by a cow and some horses caught in Coweset traps. Rhode Island held them responsible for damage done by fires set by some Indians there.
In May of 1639, Miantonomi brought gifts to the Winthrops, wampum from Canonicus for the Governor and a basket for Mrs. Winthrop from Miantonomi’s wife. In exchange he asked for some of the Pequot survivors and the right to hunt on former Pequot lands.
In 1640, Miantonomi was summoned to Boston to answer charges of a Narragansett conspiracy against the English. Miantonomi asked Roger Williams, a man he apparently trusted, to act as interpeter. But, being banished from Boston only five years earlier, he refused. The English then offered a Pequot maid as an interpeter, which Miantonomi considered an insult .
In 1642, Miantonomi went to Montauk, L.I., to try to convince the Indians living there to join the Narragansetts in an uprising against the English.
1643 – Miantonomi was executed by Uncas with the approval of the United Colonies. He was greatly morned by his people.
Died: Executed April, 1676
Son of Miantonomi
Last great sachem of the Narragansetts
Led the Narragansetts in the Great Swamp Fight of Dec. 19,1675 against the English, fom which he escaped .
Sachem of the Montauks on Long Island
Born: About 1620 Died: 1659
Daughter: at least one, name unknown
Met with Lion Gardiner at Ft. Saybrook, Connecticut immediately after the Pequot war to ask if the English were mad at all Indians. He was informed that he must hunt down the Pequots who had fled to Long Island to remain friends of the English. According to rumors, Sassacus and a large number of Pequots had fled to Long Island.
The various Indian tribes had formed alliances, Ninigret with Roger Williams, Miantonomi with the Massachusetts Bay Colony, Uncas with the Connecticut Colony and the Montauks looked to the Pequots to which they were both tributaries and close relatives.
Youghco (later called Poggatacut), the chief Long Island sachem who lived on Shelter Is. (Mauhausett) in Peconie Bay, a short distance from the Montauk villages, did not oppose an alliance with the English, but refused to hunt down Pequots on Long Island.
Both Youghco and Wyandauch agreed to become tributaries of both Connecticut and Massachusetts in exchange for their protection. They also agreed to make annual wampum payment to both colonies, with Massachusetts getting twice as much as Connecticut.
The kinship relations of the Long Island Indians reached accross the sound to include the Mohegan, Pequot, Narragansett and Niantic Indians.
In the late spring of 1638, Ninigret came across the sound with about 80 men, to convince Wyandanch to ally the Montauks with him instead of Massachusetts and Connecticut. When Wyandanch refused, Ninigret striped him in front of his people to humiliate him and stole 30 fathoms of his wampum.He continued on to attack several more villages demanding future payments of wampum and corn from the Long Islanders.
The English later recovered the wampum from Ninigret and returned it to Wyandanch.
Miantonomi, also visited Wyandanch to incourage him to pay tribute to the Narragansetts instead of Connecticut. Wyandanch reported the visit to the English who informed him to pay no tribute to the Narragansetts.
1641 – Wyandanch and Mandush ( a Shinnecock sachem ) settled a dispute between the English at Southampton and the Indians living at Sebonac, a short distance north of the Shinnecock village. The English complained that the Sebonac villagers continued to plant corn on land that the English believed they had purchases in 1640, and that their cattle were often injured when they fell into food-storage pits abandoned when the Indians relocated their wigwams.
The Indians complained that the settlers cattle destroyed their crops. A compromise was reached that called or fences to be built by the English, restrictions were put on grazing livestock and in returned the Indians would fill in storage-pits that were no longer used.
As settlement advanced, Indian relations deteriorated proportionately. Apart from disputes over landownership, day-to-day quarrels arose from a multiplicity of causes. On Long Island (Dutch) the Indians’ dogs were a constant source of harassment to settlers’ livestock and poultry. On the other hand the same livestock wandered unattended into the Indians’ unfenced fields of corn which they ate and trampled. The Indians complained, but often no redress was made, and they frequently retaliated by killing the offending animals.
1649 – The English had established three town on Eastern Long Island, Easthampton, Southhampton, and Southold, the central and western parts ( Oyster Bay, Nassau & Queens County) Long Island, extending into New Jersey were the Eastern edge of Munsee Territory.
1650 – Uncas accused both Wyandanch and Ninigret of hiring shamens to harm or kill him and his men.
1653 – Ninigret attacked the Montauks killing 30 men and capturing 14, including 2 sachems and Wyandauch’s daughter. All were later released unharmed except one man who was killed in retaliation for a Niantic killed by Wyandauch on Long Island.
Sept.1654 – Wyandauch attacked a party of Niantics visiting Block Island killing over 30 including Ninigret’s nephew and 2 Niantic sachems.
In the spring of 1655 a conflict over grazing rights developed between the English and the Indians. The resolution of it required that the English built and maintain fences to protect the Montauk’s planting grounds, The English also promised to pay for any damage done by their cattle going through the fence during late spring and summer when crops were in the ground. In return the Montauks allowed English cattle and horses to graze at will after the fall harvest until the time again came for spring planting. In addition, the English were granted access to the salt hay near the wetlands.
1655 – East Hampton officals gave Wyandanch a monopoly on liquor distribution to his people. East Hampton ruled that no Indian may purchase liquor without a “writine ticket” from Wyandauch.
1655 – The English sent Wyandauch some lead, presumably to cast into musket balls. The English thus showed their support of him.
They also prevented Ninigret from gaining a military advantage over Wyandauch by suppling an armed sloop for a year and a half to patrol Long Island Sound and keep Ninigret and his men from crossing over.
1656 – The United Colonies required Wyandauch to come to Plymouth to answer charges, brought by Ninigret, that he resorted to Witchcraft to harm Uncas. This may have been related to the 1650 charge brought by Uncas himself. Neither Ninigret or Uncas appeared at the hearing and the charges were dropped.
1659 – Wyandauch attempted to keep the Pequot from crossing over to Long Island to gather shells for making wampum. The Pequots complained to the United Colonies who gave notice ” The Pequots….bee permitted to freely fetch shells there…. as they formerly had done”.
June 1659 – Wyandauch brought suit against Jeremy Daily for damage done to his ” Great Cannow “. This vessel was probably 30 – 40 feet in lenght and used for trips accross the sound. Daily and another East Hampton man, had repaired the canoe and were given permission to use it to take some goods over to Gardiner’s Island, with Gardiner’s son David. They met with bad weather on the trip and failed to secure the canoe properly aon arriving at Gardiner’s Island. The elder Gardnier asked them if the canoe was secure and Daily’s reply was that there would be time later for that. The canoe suffered considerable damage and was full of water because of Daily’s neglect. Lion Gardiner testified for Wyandauch against Daily, who was charged with negligence. The court awarded Wyandauch ten shillings.
June (May?) 8, 1659 – Wyandauch and his son Wyancombone granted whale rights to Gardiner for a stretch of beach running from the western bounds of Southampton to Kitchaminchoke in the present-day town of Mastic.
July 28, 1659 – Wyandauch and his son extend whale rights granted on May 8, above, from Mystic to Enoughguamuck, present-day Moriches Inlet.